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This project evaluated the effectiveness of screening brief intervention and referral for treatment (SBIRT) in primary care in Abu Dhabi to manage patients with problematic substance use. This study aimed to determine whether: (i) training primary care physicians on the SBIRT model increased the identification of patients using substances at a harmful, hazardous or dependent level; (ii) training improved physicians’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in self-efficacy in managing substance use.
Substance use is increasing in the United Arab Emirates yet there has been no formal primary care intervention. SBIRT was considered an appropriate model given its endorsement by the WHO.
A controlled trial (two intervention and two matched control clinics) was undertaken. Intervention physicians (n=17) were trained in SBIRT. Physicians’ attitudes were measured before and after training and eight months after implementation. Target recruitment was 900 patients. Inclusion criteria were: consenting UAE national, ⩾18 years, using the ‘walk-in’ primary care clinic. Patient data was collected by physician-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of drug use was measured through electronic patient records.
A total of 906 patients were screened, aged 18–82 years and 496 (55%) were female. Of these, 5.7% reported use of amphetamine, 3.9% alcohol, 3.3%, sedatives, 1.7% opioids and 1.1% cannabis. In all, 21 people had a moderate/high ASSIST score and received a brief intervention, but did not attend follow-up; three high-risk people were referred for specialist treatment. Physicians’ attitudes towards patients with problematic substance use and providing treatment improved after training, but returned to pre-training levels after eight months. Including the 21 individuals identified from intervention screening, the prevalence of substance use increased to 0.208% (95% CI 0.154–0.274), significantly higher than in control clinics (P<0.001).
In conclusion, physicians were generally positive towards SBIRT and SBIRT increased recorded drug related conditions at a practice level. However, poor patient attendance at follow-up requires investigation.
Based upon its economical perspective, the phenomenon of forced moulting in the poultry industry has become a common practice to increase the productivity and reproductive life span of birds. Different feed supplements, including vitamins, minerals, probiotics and prebiotics have been extensively used by poultry farmers for many years. In the last decade, researchers have reported advantageous effects of these supplements in improving different health biomarkers of post moult poultry birds. Therefore, including with these supplements in post moult feed is believed to exhibit better results than moulting alone. The current review is aimed at highlighting the empirical data available on the importance of various feed supplements that are considered favourable in ameliorating the health status of moulted poultry birds.
Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) semiconductor crystal properties have been studied extensively with a focus on correlations to their radiation detector performance. The need for defect-free CZT crystal is imperative for optimal detector performance. Extended defects like Tellurium (Te) inclusions, twins, sub-grain boundaries, and dislocations are common defects found in CZT crystals; they alter the electrical properties and, therefore, the crystal's response to high energy radiation. In this research we studied the extended defects in CZT crystals from two separate ingots grown using the low-pressure Bridgman technique. We fabricated several detectors cut from wafers of two separate ingots by dicing, lapping, polishing, etching and applying gold metal contacts on the main surfaces of the crystals. Using infrared (IR) transmission microscope we analyzed the defects observed in the CZT detectors, showing three dimensional scans and plot size distributions of Te inclusions, twins and sub-grain boundaries observed in particular regions of the CZT detectors. We characterized electrical properties of the detectors by measuring bulk resistivity and detector response to gamma radiation. We observed that CZT detectors with more extended defects showed poor opto-electrical properties compared to detectors with fewer defects.
CZT is a semiconductor material that promises to be a good candidate for uncooled gamma radiation detectors. However, to date, we are yet to overcome the technological difficulties in production of large size, defect-free CZT crystals. The most common problem is accumulation of Tellurium precipitates as microscopic inclusions. These inclusions influence the charge collection through charge trapping and electric field distortion. We employed high energy transmission X-ray diffraction techniques to study the quality of the CdZnTe crystals grown by Bridgman Technique. Crystallinity and defects within two different growth set-ups, i.e. with and without choked seeding, were compared by imaging the crystal orientation topography with white beam X-ray diffraction topography (WBXDT). The X-ray diffraction topography results show high correlation with large-area infrared transmission images of the crystals. Grain boundaries that are highly decorated with Te inclusions are observed. Characteristic Te inclusion arrangements as a result of growth conditions are discussed. We also measured the electronic properties of the detectors fabricated from ingots grown using two Bridgman processes, and observed a reduction in electrical resistivity of choked-seeding-grown CdZnTe crystals. Our results show that although choked seeding technique holds a promise in the realization of high quality mono-crystalline CdZnTe, current growth parameters must be improved to obtain defect-free crystals. These results are helpful to attain optimal seeding process for Bridgman-growth of large single crystals of CdZnTe.
We report, for the first time, effects of annealing of ZnO NWs grown on p-Si substrates. ZnO NWs are grown using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and thermal annealing was performed in situ under nitrogen ambient at different stages of the growth process. Increasing the annealing temperature of the ZnO seed epi-layer from 635 °C to 800 °C does not affect the morphology of the grown NWs. In contrast, annealing the NWs themselves at 800 °C results in a 48% decrease of the surface area to volume ratio of the grown NWs. The optical quality can be improved by annealing the seed layer at a higher temperature of 800 °C, although annealing the NWs themselves does not affect the defect density.
In this work, effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on p-Si and GaN substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are investigated. Annealing at 600 °C results in optimum crystal and optical qualities of the ZnO thin films on both substrates. Smaller lattice mismatch between grown ZnO epitaxial layer on GaN substrates results in better film morphology as compared to p-Si substrates. Higher annealing temperature along with a slower thermal ramp provides better crystal quality of ZnO thin films on both substrates. Annealing ZnO thin films at 700 °C with a slower thermal ramp results in better crystal quality as is evident from a 56% reduction in the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (002) peak compared to the as-grown films. The optical quality also enhances with a slower annealing rate. The determination of the optimum annealing conditions for different substrates has important implications in fabricating optimized and efficient ZnO based electronics.
Malaria, a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, can substantially reduce host fitness in wild animals (Atkinson and Van Riper 1991; Schall 1996). In humans, the major disease syndromes – severe anemia, coma, and organ failure, as well as general pathology such as respiratory distress, aches, and nausea – cause considerable mortality and morbidity (Marsh and Snow 1997).
Biomedical research attributes malaria to red cell destruction, infected cell sequestration in vital organs, and the parasite-induced release of cytokines (Marsh and Snow 1997). But mechanistic explanations are just one type of explanation for any biological phenomenon, and, in recent years, evolutionary biologists have become interested in offering evolutionary explanations of infectious disease virulence. This is entirely appropriate (Read 1994). In the context of malaria, for example, the clinical outcome of infection has an important impact on parasite and host fitness and is – at least in part – determined by heritable variation in host and parasite factors (Greenwood et al. 1991). Yet in the recent rush to provide evolutionary explanations of disease, there has been, in our view, too little interaction between the models built by evolutionary biologists and reality. There is unlikely to be a simple, general model of virulence: the causes of disease and the fitness consequences for host and parasite are too variable. Instead, different models, and even different frameworks, will be relevant in different contexts.
A polypoid inflammatory pseudotumour was diagnosed in the trachea of an eight-year-old child who presented with asthmatic symptoms. The tumour showed 80 per cent blockage of the lower trachea and consisted of proliferating spindly fibroblastic cells admixed with a variable number of inflammatory cells. The literature on childhood inflammatory pseudotumours is reviewed together with the differential diagnosis of other polypoid mesenchymal tumours of the trachea.
The altitudinal zonation of forests on Mount Kerinci, Sumatra (3800 m) is described and compared with that in the temperate region of east Asia. Nine plots were selected between 1750 m in altitude and the upper limit of vegetation at 3250 m, at intervals of about 200 m in altitude. The plots are distinguished according to their main dominants, and the population structure of the dominant species is examined. The lower forests have species showing the whole range of size classes as well as solitary giants as dominants, but the upper forests lack these giants and are floristically poorer. Between 1750 m (the start of well preserved natural vegetation) and 2950 m (the forest limit) three forest zones are distinguished, and between 2950 and 3250 m a scrub zone. Upper forest zones tend to be dominated by species of the same genus or family which form important understory components of the zone below. Based on floristic comparisons with mountains of higher latitudes (i.e. Himalayas and Japan), the two lower forest zones (up to 2400 m) represent a subtropical zone, and the upper forest zone a warm-temperate zone. Climatic conditions at the forest limit on Mount Kerinci are similar to those at the latitudinal limit of warm-temperate evergreen trees; in the Himalayas the forest limit represents the latitudinal limit of the cool-temperate, and in Japan of the subarctic Altitudinal zonation patterns change with latitude, reaching their most complex on subtropical mountains where the two floristic realms, the Boreal and Palaeotropical, meet. A scheme for the pattern of vegetation zonation in east Asia is proposed.
Schistosoma rodhaini is a parasite of rodents and dogs in some parts of Africa, south of the Sahara (Schwetz, 1952; Deramée et aly 1953; Berrie & Goodman, 1962; Nelson et al.f 1962). Occasional human infections have also been reported (Haenens & Santele, 1955).
The only comprehensive study reported in the literature on the histopathology of S. rodhaini is that of Thienpont et al. (1953) in naturally infected dogs. Saoud et ah (1966) briefly described the tissue reactions in chronic heavy infections of the Kenya strain in hamsters. It has been found that the pancreas is one of the visceral organs seriously involved in schistosomiasis rodhaini of hamsters.