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The complex wake behind two side-by-side flat plates placed normal to the inflow direction has been explored in a direct numerical simulation study. Two gaps,
, were considered, both at a Reynolds number of 1000 based on the plate width
and the inflow velocity. For gap ratio
, the biased gap flow resulted in an asymmetric flow configuration consisting of a narrow wake with strong vortex shedding and a wide wake with no periodic near-wake shedding. Shear-layer transition vortices were observed in the wide wake, with characteristic frequency 0.6. For
, two simulations were performed, started from a symmetric and an asymmetric initial flow field. A symmetric configuration of Kármán vortices resulted from the first simulation. Surprisingly, however, two different three-dimensional instability features were observed simultaneously along the span of the upper and lower plates. The spanwise wavelengths of these secondary streamwise vortices, formed in the braid regions of the primary Kármán vortices, were approximately
, respectively. The wake bursts into turbulence some
downstream. The second simulation resulted in an asymmetric wake configuration similar to the asymmetric wake found for the narrow gap
, with the appearance of shear-layer instabilities in the wide wake. The analogy between a plane mixing layer and the separated shear layer in the wide wake was examined. The shear-layer frequencies obtained were in close agreement with the frequency of the most amplified wave based on linear stability analysis of a plane mixing layer.
Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration.
Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates.
Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates.
Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.
Controlled traffic farming (CTF) systems aim to reduce soil compaction by restricting machinery field traffic to permanent traffic lanes. Grass-clover silage production is generally associated with intensive field traffic, resulting in reduced silage clover content. If CTF can increase yield and clover content in grass-clover leys, this would reduce the need for grain and expensive protein concentrate in dairy cow feed rations. A mixed integer programming model was developed to evaluate the potential profitability of CTF in a dairy farm context. Existing field trial data were used to calculate the expected yield outcome of CTF, based on reductions in trafficked area. The results revealed that CTF increased profitability by up to €50/ha. Total machinery costs are likely to increase on converting to CTF, but variable machinery costs are likely to decrease.
We reanalyzed data from a previously published randomized component study that aimed to test the incremental effect of systematic exposure in an internet-delivered cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Three hundred and nine individuals with IBS were randomly assigned to either the full treatment protocol (experimental condition) or the same treatment protocol without systematic exposure (control). Participants were assessed weekly for IBS symptoms over the active treatment phase. We used a complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis, in the growth mixture modeling framework, to (1) examine the specific effect of exposure among those who received the intervention (i.e. compliers), and (2) explore the associations of pre-treatment patient characteristics with compliance status and outcome changes.
Fifty-five per cent of those assigned to the experimental condition were classified as compliers. The CACE analysis that took into account compliance status demonstrated that the magnitude of the incremental effect of systematic exposure on IBS symptoms was larger than the effect observed in an intention-to-treat analysis that ignored compliance status (d = 0.81 v. d = 0.44). Patients with university education showed more improvement during the exposure phase of the treatment. Pre-treatment patient characteristics did not predict compliance status.
The effect of systematic exposure on IBS symptoms is of substantial magnitude among those individuals who actually receive the intervention (CACE). Studying the subsample of individuals who discontinue treatment prematurely and tailoring interventions to improve compliance may increase overall improvement rates in ICBT for IBS.
In this work, we study the class of mostly expanding partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms. We prove that such a class is
, among the partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms and we prove that the mostly expanding condition guarantees the existence of physical measures and provides more information about the statistics of the system. Mañé’s classical derived-from-Anosov diffeomorphism on
belongs to this set.
Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach.
Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data.
A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit–risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration.
Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.
Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has developed into a growing field of concern for the insurance business. However, climate-related risk is not entirely a new field in insurance. Historically, a large number of insurance organisational choices and strategies have been used to mitigate the financial impact of extreme events and uncertainties associated with climate change. Taking the case of forests in Sweden, this article reviews the ways in which climate-related risks such as storm/wind and fire risks have been assured. The study shows that climate-related risks have generally increased over time and that major hazard events have been decisive for strategy and organisation choices. Twentieth-century developments show that corporate insurance coverage increased due to higher levels of anticipated risk, while self-insurance and public insurance were reduced. However, in more recent times the expansion of corporate insurance has stagnated. Increased premiums and tighter terms following historically extreme weather events have led government and forest owners to assume more climate risks.
The incidence of childhood respiratory infections in Greenland is among the highest globally. We performed a population-based study of 352 Greenlandic children aged 0–6 years aiming to describe rates and risk factors for carriage of four key bacteria associated with respiratory infections, their antimicrobial susceptibility and inter-bacterial associations. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae grouped by serotypes included (VT) or not included (NVT) in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. S. pneumoniae was detected from age 2 weeks with a peak carriage rate of 60% in 2-year-olds. Young age and having siblings attending a daycare institution were associated with pneumococcal carriage. Overall co-colonization with ⩾2 of the studied bacteria was 52%. NTHi showed a positive association with NVT pneumococci and M. catarrhalis, respectively, M. catarrhalis was positively associated with S. pneumoniae, particular VT pneumococci, whereas S. aureus were negatively associated with NTHi and M. catarrhalis. Nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage was present unusually early in life and with frequent co-colonization. Domestic crowding increased odds of carriage. Due to important bacterial associations we suggest future surveillance of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine's impact on carriage in Greenland to also include other pathogens.
Hybrid organic/silicon heterostructures have become of great interest for photovoltaic application due to their promising features (e.g. easy fabrication in a low-temperature process) for cost-effective photovoltaics. This work is focused on solar cells with a hybrid heterojunction between the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and n-doped monocrystalline silicon. As semi-transparent top contact, a thin (15 nm) Au layer was employed. Devices with different P3HT thicknesses were processed by spin-casting and compared with a reference Au/n-Si Schottky diode solar cell.
The current density-voltage (J-V) measurements of the hybrid devices show a significant increase in open-circuit voltage (VOC) from 0.29 V up to 0.50 V for the best performing hybrid devices compared to the Schottky diode reference, while the short-circuit current density (JSC) does not change significantly. The increased VOC indicates that P3HT effectively reduces the reverse electron current into the gold contact. The wavelength-dependent JSC measurements show a decreased JSC in the wavelength range of P3HT absorption. This is related to the reduced JSC generation in silicon not being compensated by JSC generation in P3HT. It is concluded that the charge generation in P3HT is less efficient than in silicon.
After a thermal annealing of the hybrid P3HT/silicon solar cells, we achieved power conversion efficiencies (PCE) (AM1.5 illumination) up to 6.5% with VOC of 0.52 V, JSC of 18.6 mA/cm² and a fill factor (FF) of 67%. This is more than twice the efficiency of the reference Schottky diode.
The addition of a CdMgTe (CMT) layer at the back of a CdTe solar cell should improve its performance by reflecting both photoelectrons and forward-current electrons away from the rear surface. Higher collection of photoelectrons will increase the cell’s current, and reduction of forward current will increase its voltage. To achieve electron reflection, conformal CMT layers were deposited at the back of CdTe cells, and a variety of measurements including performance curves, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were performed. Oxidation of magnesium in the CMT layer was addressed by adding a CdTe capping layer. MgCl2 passivation was substituted for CdCl2 in some cases, but little difference was seen.
The Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP) co-ordinates the activities of the six Australian research institutions and a group of industrial partners in the Australia-US Institute for Advanced Photovoltaics (AUSIAPV) to develop the next generations of photovoltaic device technology and to provide a pipeline of opportunities for performance increase and cost reduction. AUSIAPV links ACAP with US-based partners. These national and international research collaborations provide a pathway for highly visible, structured photovoltaic research collaboration between Australian and US researchers, institutes and agencies with significant joint programs based on the clear synergies between the participating organizations. The research program is organized in five collaborative Program Packages (PPs). PP1 deals with silicon wafer-based cells, focusing on three main areas: cells from solar grade silicon, rear contact and silicon-based tandem cells. PP2 involves research into a range of organic solar cells, organic/inorganic hybrid cells, "earth abundant" thin-film materials and "third generation" approaches. PP3 is concerned with optics and characterization. PP4 will deliver a substantiated methodology for assessing manufacturing costs of the different technologies and PP5 involves education, training and outreach. The main research topics, results and plans for the future are presented.
It is well known that web-based interventions can be effective treatments for depression. However, dropout rates in web-based interventions are typically high, especially in self-guided web-based interventions. Rigorous empirical evidence regarding factors influencing dropout in self-guided web-based interventions is lacking due to small study sample sizes. In this paper we examined predictors of dropout in an individual patient data meta-analysis to gain a better understanding of who may benefit from these interventions.
A comprehensive literature search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy for adults with depression from 2006 to January 2013 was conducted. Next, we approached authors to collect the primary data of the selected studies. Predictors of dropout, such as socio-demographic, clinical, and intervention characteristics were examined.
Data from 2705 participants across ten RCTs of self-guided web-based interventions for depression were analysed. The multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [relative risk (RR) 1.08], lower educational level (primary education, RR 1.26) and co-morbid anxiety symptoms (RR 1.18) significantly increased the risk of dropping out, while for every additional 4 years of age, the risk of dropping out significantly decreased (RR 0.94).
Dropout can be predicted by several variables and is not randomly distributed. This knowledge may inform tailoring of online self-help interventions to prevent dropout in identified groups at risk.
Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958–2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.
The effects of antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have been overestimated because of selective publication of positive trials. Reanalyses that include unpublished trials have yielded reduced effect sizes. This in turn has led to claims that antidepressants have clinically insignificant advantages over placebo and that psychotherapy is therefore a better alternative. To test this, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing psychotherapy with pill placebo.
Ten 10 studies comparing psychotherapies with pill placebo were identified. In total, 1240 patients were included in these studies. For each study, Hedges’ g was calculated. Characteristics of the studies were extracted for subgroup and meta-regression analyses.
The effect of psychotherapy compared to pill placebo at post-test was g = 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.36, I2 = 0%, 95% CI 0–58]. This effect size corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7.14 (95% CI 5.00–12.82). The psychotherapy conditions scored 2.66 points lower on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) than the placebo conditions, and 3.20 points lower on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Some indications for publication bias were found (two missing studies). We found no significant differences between subgroups of the studies and in meta-regression analyses we found no significant association between baseline severity and effect size.
Although there are differences between the role of placebo in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, psychotherapy has an effect size that is comparable to that of antidepressant medications. Whether these effects should be deemed clinically relevant remains open to debate.
We have grown GaN, with addition of a 0.10 to 0.33 % Al, on sapphire(0001) substrates by solid-source RF-plasma assisted MBE. The Al-concentration was determined by secondary ion-mass spectrometry and Auger-electron spectroscopy, while the layer quality was assessed by photoluminescence and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy revealed a meandering pattern and a surface roughness varying with Al-content. The smallest surface roughness was obtained at 0.10 % Al. Photoluminescence revealed two main peaks attributed to the neutral donor-bound exciton. Its energy increased slightly with Al-concentration, which established a correlation between the Al-concentration and the band gap.
Identical samples of uranium coupons were prepared and each exposed to hydrogen for different times (where this time is significantly less than a classically understood ‘induction time’). Samples were prepared from rolled depleted uranium stock: as-received oxide was removed on all surfaces and two faces (~12x12 mm) were polished to a sub-micron standard. Samples were individually taken through a Vacuum Thermal Pre-Treatment cycle from room temperature to 200°C to the reaction temperature (80°C) over 40 hours and subsequently exposed to 10 mbar O2 for 24 hours. After O2 was removed, the samples were exposed to hydrogen for pre-determined times of up to 48 minutes. Examination of the samples by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has, as expected, identified small features protruding from the surface believed to have been caused by sub-surface precipitation of UH3. In general these features are circular and isolated from each other, have a diameter of less than 3μm and appear as either ‘flat-topped’ or ‘domed’ morphology. In addition, longer time exposure samples show a predominance of ‘area attack’ where coalesced sub-surface precipitation appears to be confined to particular metal grains. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) data show an increase in the quantity of UH3 with time.
The electronic structure of delta plutonium (δ-Pu) and plutonium compounds is investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). Results for δ-Pu show a small component of the valence electronic structure which might reasonably be associated with a 5f6 configuration. PES results for PuTe are used as an indication for the 5f6 configuration due to the presence of atomic multiplet structure. Temperature dependent PES data on δ-Pu indicate a narrow peak centered 20 meV below the Fermi energy and 100 meV wide. The first PES data for PuCoIn5 indicate a 5f electronic structure more localized than the 5fs in the closely related PuCoGa5. There is support from the PES data for a description of Pu materials with an electronic configuration of 5f5 with some admixture of 5f6 as well as a localized/delocalized 5f5 description.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the phonon density of states (DOS) of PuO2(+2%Ga) were made and compared to recent predictions from the literature made using three leading theoretical approaches; Density Functional Theory (DFT), DFT plus the Hubbard U (DFT+U), and Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). The DFT prediction, which does not account for strong electronic correlations, underestimates the measured energies of most features. The DFT+U and DMFT predictions, which include approximations to strong correlation effects, more accurately reflect the low energy features but exaggerate splitting in the highest energy optic oxygen modes. The exaggeration of the splitting is worse for DFT+U than for DMFT. The transverse acoustic mode shows the least sensitivity to calculation type, and is well reproduced by all three theories. The longitudinal acoustic mode, which is thought to control the thermal conductivity, is more sensitive to calculation type, suggesting an important role for electronic correlations in making application-critical predictions.
In d-wave unconventional superconductors, superconducting Cooper pairs are believed to be formed via magnetic fluctuations. In fact, the superconducting transition temperature Tc roughly correlates with the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation energy in d-wave unconventional superconductors including high Tc cuprates. In addition to this correlation, the superconducting pairing symmetry and the magnetic anisotropy of the normal state are found empirically to be strongly correlated in f-electron unconventional superconductors having crystallographic symmetry lower than cubic. In antiferromagnetic systems, unconventional superconductivity appears with singlet (d-wave) pairing for cases of XY anisotropy. In contrast, in ferromagnetic systems, unconventional superconductivity with triplet (e.g. p-wave) pairing appears for cases of Ising anisotropy. In this report, the d-wave case is addressed, the origin of XY anisotropy is discussed in terms of the orbital character; and the angular momentum character jz for each piece of Fermi surfaces is determined.
Atomistic modeling is used to study the role of different alloying additions to metallic U-Zr nuclear fuels in terms of their ability to reduce lanthanide migration to the outer surface of the fuel and thus reduce their interaction with cladding. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys is used to examine the behavior of each addition, the resulting phase structure, and the evolution of the fuel surface. Different behaviors are observed for each of the additives (In, Tl, Ga, Sb, Pd), all a result of the competition between the formation of bulk precipitates and the tendency of each additive to segregate to the surface. For each case, characteristic temperatures are determined indicating the range of temperatures in which each additive performs a different role. Sb and Pd additives are determined to be the most effective additions, properly balancing their ability to bind lanthanides in the fuel with their own segregating tendencies.