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A robust biomedical informatics infrastructure is essential for academic health centers engaged in translational research. There are no templates for what such an infrastructure encompasses or how it is funded. An informatics workgroup within the Clinical and Translational Science Awards network conducted an analysis to identify the scope, governance, and funding of this infrastructure. After we identified the essential components of an informatics infrastructure, we surveyed informatics leaders at network institutions about the governance and sustainability of the different components. Results from 42 survey respondents showed significant variations in governance and sustainability; however, some trends also emerged. Core informatics components such as electronic data capture systems, electronic health records data repositories, and related tools had mixed models of funding including, fee-for-service, extramural grants, and institutional support. Several key components such as regulatory systems (e.g., electronic Institutional Review Board [IRB] systems, grants, and contracts), security systems, data warehouses, and clinical trials management systems were overwhelmingly supported as institutional infrastructure. The findings highlighted in this report are worth noting for academic health centers and funding agencies involved in planning current and future informatics infrastructure, which provides the foundation for a robust, data-driven clinical and translational research program.
SnO2 doped with Sb and Nb has been investigated for its use as catalyst support materials replacing carbon to enhance PEM fuel cells stability. Nanostructured powders of various doping levels were prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). The specific requirements of surface area >50 m2g-1 and electronic conductivity >0.01 Scm-1 were obtained, and pore sizes ranging mainly from 10 to 100 nm. Pt particles (9-20 wt.% in loading targeted) of ∼1 nm well dispersed in Sb-doped SnO2 was prepared by a one-step FSP procedure providing microstructures of high interest for further investigations as cathode in PEM fuel cells.
Few studies have formally examined the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of child pneumonia in the tropics, despite the fact that most child pneumonia deaths occur there. We examined the association between four meteorological exposures (rainy days, sunshine, relative humidity, temperature) and the incidence of clinical pneumonia in young children in the Philippines using three time-series methods: correlation of seasonal patterns, distributed lag regression, and case-crossover. Lack of sunshine was most strongly associated with pneumonia in both lagged regression [overall relative risk over the following 60 days for a 1-h increase in sunshine per day was 0·67 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·51–0·87)] and case-crossover analysis [odds ratio for a 1-h increase in mean daily sunshine 8–14 days earlier was 0·95 (95% CI 0·91–1·00)]. This association is well known in temperate settings but has not been noted previously in the tropics. Further research to assess causality is needed.
Some personality characteristics have previously been associated with an increased risk for psychiatric disorder. Longitudinal studies are required in order to tease apart temporary (state) and enduring (trait) differences in personality among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to determine whether there is a characteristic personality profile in BD, and whether associations between BD and personality are best explained by state or trait effects.
A total of 2247 participants in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder study completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory administered at study entry, and at 1 and 2 years.
Personality in BD was characterized by high neuroticism (N) and openness (O), and low agreeableness (A), conscientiousness (C) and extraversion (E). This profile was replicated in two independent samples, and openness was found to distinguish BD from major depressive disorder. Latent growth modeling demonstrated that manic symptoms were associated with increased E and decreased A, and depressed symptoms with higher N and lower E, A, C and O. During euthymic phases, high N and low E scores predicted a future depression-prone course.
While there are clear state effects of mood on self-reported personality, personality variables during euthymia predict future course of illness. Personality disturbances in extraversion, neuroticism and openness may be enduring characteristics of patients with BD.
Background and objective: Anaesthesia information management systems, though still not used widely, will inevitably replace handwritten records and may eventually serve as a core for the development of computerized decision support. We investigated staff expectations and the accuracy of data entry in a recently implemented commercially available anaesthesia information management system. Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to the staff before and 1 week and 3 months after implementation in order to assess their opinion. The quality of manual data entry, and of automatic data record was evaluated by looking for missing data and the prevalence of artefacts. Results: Despite initial fears the users quickly accepted the system. Both automatic and manual data entry were found to be accurate and reliable while the prevalence of artefacts was relatively low. Conclusions: A commercially available anaesthesia information management system can be easily implemented and used instead of paper charts.
We have demonstrated a uniform, robust interface for high-k deposition with significant improvements in device electrical performance compared to conventional surface preparation techniques. The interface was a thin thermal oxide that was grown and then etched back in a controlled manner to the desired thickness. Utilizing this approach, an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) as low as 0.87 nm has been demonstrated on high-k gate stacks having improved electrical characteristics as compared to more conventionally prepared starting surfaces.
Several studies have indicated that additional genes in the major histocompatibility complex
(MHC) region, other than the class II genes HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 (the IDDM1 locus), may
contribute to susceptibility and resistance to type 1 diabetes. The relative magnitude of these non-
DR/DQ effects is uncertain and their map location is unknown owing to the extraordinary linkage
disequilibrium that extends over the 3.5 Mb of the MHC. The homozygous parent test has been
proposed as a method for detection of additional risk factors conditional on HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1.
However, this method is inefficient since it uses only parents homozygous for the primary disease
locus, the DQB1-DRB1 haplotype. To overcome this limitation, Conditional ETDT was used in the
present report to test for association conditional on the DQB1-DRB1 haplotype, thereby allowing all
parents to be included in the analysis. First, we confirm in UK and Sardinian type 1 diabetic families
that allelic variation at HLA-DRB1 has a very significant effect on the association of DQB1 and vice
versa. The Conditional ETDT was then applied to the HLA TNF (tumour necrosis factor) region and
microsatellite marker D6S273 region, both of which have been reported to contribute to IDDM1
independent of the HLA-DQB1-DRB1 genes. We found no evidence for a major role for either of these
two regions in IDDM1.
In an open nonblind clinical trial, clomipramine was administered to five previously medicated prepubertal boys with autistic disorder and severe mental retardation unmanageable due to behavior and motor problems. Although all five boys initially displayed marked behavioral symptom reduction, they developed behavioral newotoxicity necessitating discontinuation of clomipramine for all five and immediate hospitalization for three. Serious adverse effects included increased seizure frequency and symptoms of a serotonin syndrome. Our findings indicate that clomipramine enhances adaptive behavior and produces serious adverse effects in severely retarded autistic children whose symptoms were complicated by dyskinesias.
Molecular dynamics simulations incorporating a many-body (glue) potential have been used to investigate the atomic structure and dynamics of the Pb(110) surface in the range from room temperature up to the bulk melting point. The Pb (110) surface starts to disorder approximately at 360 K via the generation of vacancies and the formation of an adlayer. At about 520 K we observe the onset of a quasiliquid region at the surface, which exhibits liquid-like energetic, structural and surface properties. The disordering is enhanced in the direction parallel to the close-packed rows. While losing long range order, the two outermost quasiliquid layers retain a considerable degree of short range order. The solid-liquid (S-1) interface exhibits fluctuating atomic-scale (111) facets. The thickness of the quasiliquid film grows logarithmically for T > 520 K in agreement with expectations from the Landau-Ginzburg theory, and in close correspondence with well-established experimental data.
The optical characteristics of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) can be changed selectively with the aid of ion implantation. This can be explained by the manner in which the chain molecules are decomposed by the bombardment. New binding states can be identified by means of XPS on the irradiated surface and traced throughout the implantation depth using dynamic SIMS. In order to avoid chemical reactions, inert gas ions, ranging from He to Xe, have been implanted at energies between 100 keV and 380 keV, and fluences from 1 × 1013 /cm2 to 7 × 1015 /cm2. The results indicate a correlation of the refractive index and the surface layer contraction with surface CH- and COH-groups generation (XPS) and with in-depth damage described by the emission of secondary ions with masses 26 and 42 (SIMS), assigned to (CH2)- and (C2OH2)-.
The implantation of Au into A1203 followed by thermal annealing at 1100°C leads to dramatic changes in the optical properties. The linear and nonlinear optical properties are correlated to the presence of small Au precipitates which form during annealing.
Titanium nitride films were prepared by reactive ion beam assisted deposition (RIBAD) with Ar+/Ti ratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.3. The compositions, phases and textures of these films were studied by AES and XRD as a function of Ar+/Ti ratio and nitrogen partial pressure. The results indicate that the IBAD titanium nitride films deposited at high Ar+/Ti ratio and low nitrogen partial pressure may have reduced nitrogen concentration, (200) preferred orientation, and possibly contain the Ti2N phase.
Recent work on low-energy ion-assisted deposition of epitaxial films is reviewed. Much of the interest in this area has centered on the use of very low ion energies (∼ 25 eV) and high fluxes (> 1 ion per deposited atom) obtained using novel ion-assisted deposition techniques. These methods have been applied in ultra-high vacuum, allowing the preparation of high-purity semiconductor materials. The following ion-surface interaction effects during epitaxy are discussed: improvements in crystalline perfection during low temperature epitaxy, ion damage effects, improved homogeneity and properties in III-V alloys grown within miscibility gaps, and changes in nucleation mechanism from Stranski-Krastanov to layer-by-layer.