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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
To assess the diagnostic role of mean platelet volume in tonsillitis with and without peritonsillar abscess.
Mean platelet volume and other laboratory data were retrospectively investigated.
Mean platelet volume was significantly lower in the tonsillitis group (7.8 per cent ± 0.7 per cent) than in the control group (8.7 per cent ± 0.6 per cent; p < 0.0001), and it was significantly lower in the abscess group (7.5 per cent ± 0.6 per cent) than in the no abscess group (8.0 per cent ± 0.7 per cent; p = 0.0277). White blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were not significantly different between patients with an abscess and those without. The mean platelet volume cut-off values for the diagnosis of tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess were 7.95 fl and 7.75 fl, respectively.
Our results suggest that a decreased mean platelet volume is associated with the development and severity of tonsillitis. This finding provides useful diagnostic information for physicians treating patients with tonsillitis.
Oxoammonium cation of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) was used as an oxidizing dopant of triaryl amines to efficiently and almost quantitatively generate radical cations of the amines or a hole carrier. The doped-triaryl amines yielded an amorphous and homogeneous layer without any residual oxidant or neutral TEMPO molecule through its sublimination or warming the layer. The TEMPO cation-doped spiro-OMeTAD [tetrakis(dimethoxyphenylamine)spirobifluorene] produced a high hole mobility of 2 × 10−4 cm2/Vs. The perovskite solar cell fabricated with the TEMPO cation-doped or residual dopant-free spiro-OMeTAD as the hole-transporting layer displayed a photo-conversion efficiency of 20.1% with durability.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
About 10 X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and LMC/SMC are considered to contain black hole candidates (BHCs). Among these objects, Cyg X-1 was identified as the first BHC, and it has led BHCs for more than 25 years(Oda 1977, Liang and Nolan 1984). It is a binary system composed of normal blue supergiant star and the X-ray emitting compact object. The orbital kinematics derived from optical observations indicates that the compact object is heavier than ~ 4.8 M⊙ (Herrero 1995), which well exceeds the upper limit mass for a neutron star(Kalogora 1996), where we assume the system consists of only two bodies. This has been the basis for BHC of Cyg X-1.
Absorption line features were detected at 4.1 keV from X 1636-536 with the Tenma satellite in the spectra of X-ray bursts (Waki et al., 1984). Similar features were also detected from X 1608-52 and EXO 1747-214 during bursts (Nakamura et al., 1988; Magnier et al., 1989). These features at 4.1 keV may be interpreted as the redshifted Kα absorption line of helium-like iron atoms. However, such interpretation requires extremely soft equation of state for the nuclear matter, and confirmation with high resolution detectors is urged (Lewin et al., 1993). To investigate the line features, we observed X 1636-536 with ASCA for ~ 240 ksec.
In preparing the present report, which covers the period July 1, 1981, to June 30, 1984, close collaboration has taken place between Commissions 10 and 12, the two solar commissions, in order to avoid duplications and to insure that pertinent subjects are treated. The reader is referred to the report of Commission 12 for further solar topics. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the excellent work of the reviewers who wrote the different sections of this report, and all the members of the commission who provided information on research to be included.
The Solar Flare Telescope was constructed at Mitaka in 1989. This instrument comprises four telescopes which respectively observe (a) Hα images, (b) continuum images, (c) vector magnetic fields, and (d) velocity fields in the photosphere. The instrument aims at the study of energy build-up and energy release in solar flares, in cooperation with the Solar-A satellite. The whole system has been in regular operation since 1992 July. The methods of measuring the magnetic and velocity fields are described.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
We report on the first results from our pilot observation of nearby galaxies with Hyper Suprime-Cam. We have observed two galaxies with mass similar to that of the Milky Way Galaxy and measured the abundance of their satellite galaxies in order to address the missing satellite problem outside of the Local Group. We find that (1) the abundance of dwarf galaxies is smaller by a factor of two than the prediction from one of the current hydro-dynamical simulations and (2) there is a large halo to halo scatter. Our results highlight the importance of a statistical sample of nearby galaxies to address the missing satellite problem.
Cosmic X-rays were observed with three sets of proportional counters covering the energy range between 0.15 and 20 keV. The detector born on a spinning rocket scanned a celestial region in which the galactic latitude bII changed from 30° to −55° across the galactic plane in the Cygnus-Cassiopeia region. The spectrum of Cyg XR-2 thus obtained is represented by a thermal bremsstrahlung of temperature 3.4 keV modified by the interstellar absorption for the hydrogen column density of 3 × 1021 cm−2. The diffuse component showed an interstellar absorption effect, which was however found much weaker than one would expect if the diffuse component were due entirely to be of extragalactic origin. The spectrum obtained in the highest latitude region is represented approximately by a power law E−1.8 but shows a possible trough at about 1 keV.
The intensity and polarization of solar radio bursts at 9400, 3750, 2000, and 1000 Mc/s have been continuously observed since 1957 July. At 3750 Mc/s, the linearly polarized components were also measured during 4 months from 1957 October till 1958 January . The analysis of observations to 1958 May reveals the following points:
1. Many bursts at these frequencies show a difference in the intensity of two circularly polarized components. Frequency distributions of maximum degree of polarization of bursts are shown in Fig. 1, where weak bursts are excluded to reduce errors. At 3750, 2000, and 1000 Mc/s, particularly at 3750 Mc/s, the bursts of small degree of polarization are predominant. Circularly polarized bursts are occasionally observed at 2000 and 1000 Mc/s, but at higher frequencies the degree of polarization is usually less than 50 per cent.
2. At 3750 Mc/s, no linearly polarized components could be detected in 117 bursts for a bandwidth of 10 Mc/s. The burst at this frequency is usually composed of a small degree of circularly polarized component and a randomly polarized one.
3. Sometimes the sense of polarization varies with frequency. An example is shown in Fig. 2. On this occasion, the degree of polarization is small at 3750 Mc/s and the sense of polarization reverses between 2000 and 3750 Mc/s. Roughly grouped in Table I are 129 bursts simultaneously observed at four frequencies. The reversal of sense was found in 64 per cent of such bursts. Sometimes the sense of polarization varies with time, as may be found in our monthly report. Some of such phenomena may be interpreted by the motion of the source from the preceding part of a bipolar spot group to the following one or vice versa .
4. In Fig. 3, the bursts associated with flares are classified in three types as regards the sense of polarization, and they are allocated to each of four quadrants on the solar disk according to the position of the flares. At higher frequencies, the sense of polarization seems to correlate with the position of the source as in the case of S component [2, 3]. A precise distribution map at 9400 Mc/s is shown in Fig. 4.
A cosmic ray detector, sensitive to γ-Rays with energies greater than 500 MeV is being flown on board the OGO-5 satellite. The spacecraft was launched into a highly eccentric orbit, apogee 145000 km, on March 4, 1968. γ-Ray observations are restricted to altitudes higher than 80000 km, thereby excluding interference from the radiation belts and reducing the influence from the earth albedo flux. A description of the instrument is published in the literature (Rogowski et al., 1969).
The transport of relativistic electron beam in compressed cylindrical targets was studied from a numerical and experimental point of view. In the experiment, cylindrical targets were imploded using the Gekko XII laser facility of the Institute of Laser Engineering. Then the fast electron beam was created by shooting the LFEX laser beam. The penetration of fast electrons was studied by observing Kα emission from tracer layers in the target.