To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
In temperate zones, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outbreaks typically occur in cold weather, i.e. in late autumn and winter. However, recent outbreaks in Japan have tended to start during summer and autumn. This study examined associations of meteorological conditions with the numbers of HRSV cases reported in summer in Japan. Using data from the HRSV national surveillance system and national meteorological data for summer during the period 2007–2014, we utilized negative binomial logistic regression analysis to identify associations between meteorological conditions and reported cases of HRSV. HRSV cases increased when summer temperatures rose and when relative humidity increased. Consideration of the interaction term temperature × relative humidity enabled us to show synergistic effects of high temperature with HRSV occurrence. In particular, HRSV cases synergistically increased when relative humidity increased while the temperature was ⩾28·2 °C. Seasonal-trend decomposition analysis using the HRSV national surveillance data divided by 11 climate divisions showed that summer HRSV cases occurred in South Japan (Okinawa Island), Kyushu, and Nankai climate divisions, which are located in southwest Japan. Higher temperature and higher relative humidity were necessary conditions for HRSV occurrence in summer in Japan. Paediatricians in temperate zones should be mindful of possible HRSV cases in summer, when suitable conditions are present.
According to the mantle convection theory, mantle materials come up to the surface of the Earth at the mid-oceanic ridge system, go off in two horizontal directions, and finally at the trench and orogenic belt system they return to the interior of the Earth. We assume no return flow in the deeper part of the mantle and calculate the change of products of inertia of the Earth due to the above mass transfer. The polar wandering thus calculated is towards the direction of about 90° east and its absolute value is about 0.9 × 10−2 s/yr.
We investigate the dark matter (DM) content in the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) by examining the correlations among their physical quantities. Two origins of the large velocity dispersions of the dSphs are possible:  the existence of DM and  tidal heating by the Galaxy. The correlation tests support both  and . We finally mention circumstantial evidence for the existence of DM in the dSphs.
Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS, officially Astro-F) is a satellite which will be launched in the winter of 2003. The main purpose of the IRIS mission is an all sky survey in the mid- and far-IR with a flux limit much deeper than that of IRAS. In order to examine the performance of the survey and to find a suitable set of bandpasses for tracing galaxy evolution and picking up protogalaxy candidates as effective as possible using IRIS, we estimated the FIR galaxy counts based on a simple model with various sets of cosmological parameters and evolution types.
Recently reported infrared galaxy number counts and cosmic infrared background (CIRB) measures all suggest that galaxies have experienced a strong evolutionary phase. We statistically estimated the galaxy evolution history from these data. We treated the evolution of galaxy luminosity as a stepwise nonparametric form, in order to explore the most suitable evolutionary history which satisfies the constraint from the CIRB. We found that an order of magnitude increase of the far infrared luminosity at redshift z = 0.75 - 1.0 was necessary to reproduce the very high CIRB intensity at ~ 150 μm reported by Hauser et al. (1998). We note that too large an evolutionary factor at high z overpredicts the CIRB intensity around 1 mm. The evolutionary history also satisfies the constraints from galaxy number counts obtained by IRAS, ISO and SCUBA. The rapid evolution of the IR luminosity density required from the CIRB well reproduces the very steep slope of galaxy number counts obtained by ISO. Based on this result and the evolution of optical luminosity density, we quantitatively discuss the contribution of starburst galaxies. In addition, we present the performance of the Japanese IRIS galaxy survey.
We studied the evolution of an active region and its relation with flare activities in order to solve the physical mechanism of solar flare occurrence. We investigated the evolutionary characteristics of the active region NOAA 8948 (April 2000) and found that the newly flux emergence caused the flares in this active region.
Short-term aperiodic fluctuations with 1/f-like power spectral density (PSD), where f is the frequency, are characteristics of X-ray radiation from X-ray binaries. To investigate a mechanism creating fluctuations, we construct a cellular-automaton model for accretion disks based on the concept of self organized criticality (SOC). In this model, mass accretion takes place either by an avalanche triggered when the local mass density exceeds some critical value, or by a gradual diffusion occurring regardless of the critical condition. With this model, we can reproduce the observational PSD, the distributions of peak intensities of X-ray shots, and non-random temporal distribution of the shots. Possible accretion disk models producing l/f-like X-ray fluctuations are discussed. We conclude that such disks are likely to be advection dominated.
Short lasting flashes, called as First Precursor (PC1), were observed by some ground-based near-infrared observations for the impacts of large-sized fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) in July 1994. The impact detections by the spacecraft Galileo [2, 7] about 10 seconds after the PC1 detections by ground based telescopes, combined with the far-side impacts of SL9 fragments as viewed from Earth, suggest that the source of the PC1 should be located in the Jovian upper atmosphere above the limb, at which the atmospheric pressure is extremely low. Thus, an important problem on the PC1 is how does the falling cometary fragment, which is a huge meteorite, emit near-infrared in the extremely thin atmosphere. The ablation model, which is usually used for an impact bolide, can only estimate flux from the bolide in a dense atmosphere at visible wavelength. In this paper, we assume that the PC1s are thermal radiation from the fragments and attempt quantitative estimations of the PCI fluxes using a simple entry flash model.
We have a plan to a radioastronomy mission at the Moon. This is dedicated to the mapping of the CBR anisotropy in order to study the properties of the early Universe, especially galaxy formation. This is a candidate for the Moon mission of NASDA, launched by an HIIA Rocket. The mission carries an 1.5 m (min.) offset parabola antenna with radiation shield to the north polar region of the Moon. This will observe CBR anisotropy at three (min.) frequencies between 30 to 90 GHz. The angular resolution is 9’ at 90 GHz. The telescope will observe the donut-shaped sky between 5 to 30 degree (not fixed) from the Moon celestial north pole. The resultant sensitivity will reach ΔT/T ⋍ 106K in 30’x30’ pixel and ΔT/T ⋍ 105K in 9’x9’ pixel.
Growth of GaN on Si(111) and Ge coated Si(111) using pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) process is reported. GaN was deposited on Si(111) and Ge/Si(111) at 600°C in an N2 environment without any surface pre-treatment such as pre-nitridation. X-ray diffraction confirmed that c-plane oriented GaN was grown. Photoluminescence showed near-band-edge emission, the intensity of which was improved with hydrogen passivation. Electrical characterization showed n-type conductivity with room temperature electron mobilities in the range of 300 cm2/V-sec.
We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from undoped GaN films grown by HVPE technique on sapphire. Several defect-related PL bands are observed in the low-temperature PL spectrum. The concentrations of the defects responsible for these PL bands are determined from the dependence of PL intensity on excitation intensity. The RL band with a maximum at 1.8 eV is often the dominant PL band in HVPE GaN. It is caused by an unknown defect with the concentration of up to ∼1017 cm-3. The concentrations of defects responsible for other defect-related PL bands rarely exceed 1015 cm-3.
This study examined whether the occurrence of late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma can be predicted by evaluating HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) expression in the primary lesion.
A case–control study was conducted. The cases comprised 10 patients with late neck metastasis. The controls consisted of 16 patients without recurrence. All were examined immunohistochemically for HMGB1 protein expression. The odds ratio for late neck metastasis in relation to HMGB1 was estimated.
Results for HMGB1 were dichotomised into positive staining scores (score, 5–7) and negative scores (0–4). Six cases (60 per cent) and four controls (25 per cent) were HMGB1-positive. Although no significant result was seen, compared with HMGB1-negative patients the odds ratio for late neck metastasis in HMGB1-positive patients was 3.8 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.6–26.5) after adjusting for other factors.
In the present study, immunohistochemical study of HMGB1 in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma did not appear to be very useful for predicting occult neck metastasis. Further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between HMGB1 expression and late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
In organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of group III nitrides on sapphire, insertion of a low temperature interlayer is found to improve crystalline quality of AlxGa1−xN layer with x from 0 to 1. Here the effects of the low temperature deposited GaN or AlN interlayers on the structural quality of group III nitrides is discussed.
Identification of the electronic band structure in AlInGaN heterostructures is the key issue in high performance light emitter and switching devices. In device-typical GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well samples in a large set of variable composition a clear correspondence of transitions in photo- and electroreflection, as well as photoluminescence is found. The effective band offset across the GaN/GaInN/GaN piezoelectric heterointerface is identified and electric fields from 0.23 - 0.90 MV/cm are directly derived. In the bias voltage dependence a level splitting within the well is observed accompanied by the quantum confined Stark effect. We furthermore find direct correspondence of luminescence bands with reflectance features. This indicates the dominating role of piezoelectric fields in the bandstructure of such typical strained layers.
Uniaxial wurtzite group-III nitride heterostructures are subject to large polarization effects with significant consequences for device physics in optoelectronic and transport device applications. A central aspect for the proper implementation is the experimental quantification of polarization charges and associated fields. In modulated reflection spectroscopy of thin films and heterostructures of AlGaInN we observe pronounced Franz-Keldysh oscillations that allow direct and accurate readings of the field strength induced by polarization dipoles at the heterointerfaces. In piezoelectric GaInN/GaN quantum wells this dipole is found to induce an asymmetry in barrier heights with a respective splitting of interband transitions. This splitting energy appears to reflect in the transitions of spontaneous and stimulated luminescence in the well. From these experiments the polarization dipole is identified as controllable type-II staggered band offset between adjacent barrier layers which can extend the flexibility in AlGaInN bandstructure design. The derived field values can serve as important input parameters in the further interpretation of the entire system.
In the field of group-III nitrides, hetero-epitaxial growth has been one of the most important key technologies. A thick layer of AlGaN alloy with higher AlN molar fraction is difficult to grow on sapphire substrate, because the alloy layer is easily cracked. It is thought that one cause of generating cracks is a large lattice mismatch between an AlGaN and a GaN, when AlGaN is grown on the underlying GaN layer. We have achieved crack-free Al0.07Ga0.93N layer with the thickness of more than 1μm using underlying Al0.05Ga0.95N layer. The underlying Al0.05Ga0.95N layer was grown directly on sapphire by using the low-temperature-deposited buffer layer (LT-buffer layer). Since a lattice mismatch between the underlying Al0.05Ga0.95N layer and upper Al0.07Ga0.93N layer is relatively small, the generation of cracks is thought to be suppressed. This technology is applied to a GaN-based laser diode structure, in which thick n-Al0.07Ga0.93N cladding layer grown on the Al0.05Ga0.95N layer, improves optical confinement and single-robe far field pattern in vertical direction.