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The rotational incremental pressure-correction (RIPC) scheme, described in Timmermans et al. [Int. J. Numer. Methods. Fluids., 22 (1996)] and Shen et al. [Math. Comput., 73 (2003)] for non-rotational Navier-Stokes equations, is extended to rotating incompressible flows. The method is implemented in the context of a pseudo Fourier-spectral code and applied to several rotating laminar and turbulent flows. The performance of the scheme and the computational results are compared to the so-called diagonalization method (DM) developed by Morinishi et al. [Int. J. Heat. Fluid. Flow., 22 (2001)]. The RIPC predictions are in excellent agreement with the DM predictions, while being simpler to implement and computationally more efficient. The RIPC scheme is not in anyway limited to implementation in a pseudo-spectral code or periodic boundary conditions, and can be used in complex geometries and with other suitable boundary conditions.
To specify the principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science.
To identify nutrition, with its application in food and nutrition policy, as a science with great width and breadth of vision and scope, in order that it can fully contribute to the preservation, maintenance, development and sustenance of life on Earth.
A brief overview shows that current conventional nutrition is defined as a biological science, although its governing and guiding principles are implicit only, and no generally agreed definition is evident. Following are agreements on the principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science, made by the authors as participants at a workshop on this theme held on 5–8 April 2005 at the Schloss Rauischholzhausen, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
Nutrition science as here specified will retain its current [classical] identity as a biological science, within a broader and integrated conceptual framework, and will also be confirmed as a social and environmental science. As such it will be concerned with personal and population health, and with planetary health – the welfare and future of the whole physical and living world of which humans are a part.
Sterols in the digestive gland-gonad (DGG) complex of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda) infected with patent larval stages of Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda) versus uninfected control snails were studied by gas-liquid chromatography. The major sterol present in both populations was cholesterol, 59% in the infected snails and 51% in the controls. Infected snails contained the same phytosterols as the controls—desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol–but the percent composition was reduced. The reduction was significant for both campesterol and stigmasterol.
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