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Shunt-related adverse events are frequent in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig despite use of acetylsalicylic acid prophylaxis. A higher incidence of acetylsalicylic acid-resistance and sub-therapeutic acetylsalicylic acid levels has been reported in infants. We evaluated whether using high-dose acetylsalicylic acid can decrease shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we included infants ⩽1-year-old who underwent modified Blalock–Taussig placement and received acetylsalicylic acid in the ICU. We defined acetylsalicylic acid treatment groups as standard dose (⩽7 mg/kg/day) and high dose (⩾8 mg/kg/day) based on the initiating dose.
There were 34 infants in each group. Both groups were similar in age, gender, cardiac defect type, ICU length of stay, and time interval to second stage or definitive repair. Shunt interventions (18 versus 32%, p=0.16), shunt thrombosis (14 versus 17%, p=0.74), and mortality (9 versus 12%, p=0.65) were not significantly different between groups. On multiple logistic regression analysis, single-ventricle morphology (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval of 1.2–23, p=0.03) and post-operative red blood cells transfusion ⩾24 hours [odds ratio 15, confidence interval of (3–71), p<0.01] were associated with shunt-related adverse events. High-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment [odds ratio 2.6, confidence interval of (0.7–10), p=0.16] was not associated with decrease in these events.
High-dose acetylsalicylic acid may not be sufficient in reducing shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig. Post-operative red blood cells transfusion may be a modifiable risk factor for these events. A randomised trial is needed to determine appropriate acetylsalicylic acid dosing in infants with modified Blalock–Taussig.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
This study investigated long-term survival outcomes in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients with known human papilloma virus status.
A case note review was performed of all patients undergoing primary surgery for oropharyngeal cancer in a single centre over a 10-year period. Human papilloma virus status was determined via dual modality testing. Associations between clinicopathological variables and survival were identified using a log-rank test.
Of the 107 cases in the study, 40 per cent (n = 41) were human papilloma virus positive. The positive and negative predictive values of p16 immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus status were 57 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. At a mean follow up of 59.5 months, 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates were 78 per cent and 69 per cent, respectively. Human papilloma virus status (p = 0.014), smoking status (p = 0.021) and tumour stage (p = 0.03) were significant prognostic indicators.
The long-term survival rates in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients were comparable to other studies. Variables including human papilloma virus status and tumour stage were associated with survival in patients treated with primary surgery; however, nodal stage and presence of extracapsular spread were non-prognostic.
The State of Qatar experienced a sandstorm on the night of April 1, 2015, lasting approximately 12 hours, with winds of more than 100 km/h and average particulate matter of approximately 10 μm in diameter. The emergency department (ED) of the main tertiary hospital in Qatar managed 62% of the total emergency calls and those of higher triage order. The peak load of patients during the event manifested approximately 6 hours after the onset. The Major Emergency Command Centre of the hospital ensured the department was maximally organized in terms of disaster management, and established protocols were brought into action. Multiple timely meetings were convened in efforts to effectively execute plans that included rapid emergency medical services handover time, resourcing staff, maximizing bed space, preventing dust entry in the ED, bypassing certain administrative processes, canceling day-surgeries that did not affect inpatient morbidity, and procuring additional respiratory equipment. Patients arrived mainly with exacerbations of asthma and respiratory distress, ophthalmic emergencies, and vehicular trauma; surprisingly, the incidence of pedestrian injuries did not vary. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:227–238)
Curcumin derived from turmeric is well documented for its anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies show that curcumin also possesses neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing properties that may help delay or prevent neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Currently, clinical diagnosis of AD is onerous, and it is primarily based on the exclusion of other causes of dementia. In addition, phase III clinical trials of potential treatments have mostly failed, leaving disease-modifying interventions elusive. AD can be characterised neuropathologically by the deposition of extracellular β amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular accumulation of tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles. Disruptions in Aβ metabolism/clearance contribute to AD pathogenesis. In vitro studies have shown that Aβ metabolism is altered by curcumin, and animal studies report that curcumin may influence brain function and the development of dementia, because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as its ability to influence Aβ metabolism. However, clinical studies of curcumin have revealed limited effects to date, most likely because of curcumin’s relatively low solubility and bioavailability, and because of selection of cohorts with diagnosed AD, in whom there is already major neuropathology. However, the fresh approach of targeting early AD pathology (by treating healthy, pre-clinical and mild cognitive impairment-stage cohorts) combined with new curcumin formulations that increase bioavailability is renewing optimism concerning curcumin-based therapy. The aim of this paper is to review the current evidence supporting an association between curcumin and modulation of AD pathology, including in vitro and in vivo studies. We also review the use of curcumin in emerging retinal imaging technology, as a fluorochrome for AD diagnostics.
Experimental data are presented showing maximum carbon C6+ ion energies obtained from nm-scaled targets in the relativistic transparent regime for laser intensities between 9 × 1019 and 2 × 1021 W/cm2. When combined with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, these results show a steep linear scaling for carbon ions with the normalized laser amplitude a0 (
$a_0 \propto \sqrt ( I)$
). The results are in good agreement with a semi-analytic model that allows one to calculate the optimum thickness and the maximum ion energies as functions of a0 and the laser pulse duration τλ for ion acceleration in the relativistic-induced transparency regime. Following our results, ion energies exceeding 100 MeV/amu may be accessible with currently available laser systems.
Transoral endoscopic ENT surgical procedures are a mainstay of treatment for a variety of conditions and are often preferable to open surgery where possible. Cases of micrognathia, prominent incisor teeth or trismus may create difficulties in gaining sufficient access to undertake such procedures. Extraction of the anterior maxillary teeth can help overcome these problems in appropriate cases, with subsequent prosthetic tooth replacement supported by dental implants. To date, this approach has not been reported in the literature.
This paper reports on two cases which illustrate this approach; the first case involved pharyngeal pouch management where previous open surgery had failed, and the second case involved glottic carcinoma management where oral access was compromising resection.
This technique is recommended to facilitate effective transoral surgical procedures as a low-morbidity alternative to either open surgery or non-surgical therapies.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260
Heterotaxy is a unique clinical entity in which lateralisation of the thoraco-abdominal organs is abnormal, typically with isomerism of the bronchial tree and atrial appendages. This study was carried out to determine whether routine clinical imaging such as chest radiographs, angiographic images, and CT/MRI can determine bronchial isomerism, and how sidedness of bronchial isomerism correlates with overall features anticipated in hearts with isomeric atrial appendages.
Methods and results
We identified 73 patients with heterotaxy, in whom imaging clearly demonstrated the bronchial tree, seen at our institution since 1998. We calculated bronchial angles and lengths using all the available imaging modalities to determine the presence and sidedness of bronchial isomerism. This was then compared with the anticipated presence of isomeric atrial appendages based on the overall clinical findings, as the appendages themselves had not specifically been imaged.
The ratio of bronchial lengths revealed bronchial isomerism in all patients, with bronchial angles permitting distinction of right as opposed to left isomerism. We noted discordances between the identified bronchial isomerism and the presumed arrangement of the atrial appendages in nearly 20% of the patients in our cohort.
Routine clinical imaging with chest radiographs, angiographic imaging, and CT/MRI can determine the presence of bronchial isomerism in patients with so-called heterotaxy. Right as opposed to left isomerism can be distinguished based on bronchial angles. The finding of bronchial isomerism correlates well, but not totally, with the presumed isomerism of the atrial appendages as predicted from the identified intra-cardiac morphology.
Imprinting is a well-established technique to induce recognition features in both organic and inorganic materials for a variety of target analytes. In this study, ion imprinted polysiloxanes with varying percentage of coupling agent i.e. 3-chloro propyl trimethoxy silane (CPTM) were synthesized by sol-gel method for imprinting of Cr3+. The imprinting of Cr3+ in cross-linked siloxane network was investigated by FT-IR which indicates the metal ion is coordinated with oxygen atoms of polysiloxanes. SEM images revealed that imprinted polysiloxanes possess uniform particles of submicron size. It was experienced that by increasing the concentration of CPTM up to 10% (v/v) substantially improves the binding capacity of polysiloxanes which allows us to recognized Cr3+ down to 50µg/L. Furthermore, the selectivity of Cr3+-imprinted polysiloxanes was evaluated by treating them with other competing metal ions of same concentration i.e. Cr6+, Pb2+ and Ni2+. In this regard, polysiloxanes showed much higher binding for imprint ion i.e. Cr3+ in comparison to above mentioned metal ions. Finally, the regenerated polysiloxanes were studied in order to reuse them thus, developing cost effective biomimetic sensor coatings.
There are insufficient data from nationwide surveys on the prevalence of specific psychotic disorders and associated co-morbidities.
The 2010 Australian national psychosis survey used a two-phase design to draw a representative sample of adults aged 18–64 years with psychotic disorders in contact with public treatment services from an estimated resident population of 1 464 923 adults. This paper is based on data from 1642 participants with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 psychotic disorder. Its aim is to present estimates of treated prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of psychosis, and to describe the cognitive, physical health and substance use profiles of participants.
The 1-month treated prevalence of psychotic disorders was 3.10 cases per 1000 population aged 18–64 years, not accounting for people solely accessing primary care services; lifetime morbid risk was 3.45 per 1000. Mean premorbid intelligence quotient was approximately 0.5 s.d.s below the population mean; current cognitive ability (measured with a digit symbol coding task) was 1.6 s.d.s below the population mean. For both cognitive tests, higher scores were significantly associated with better independent functioning. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was high, affecting 60.8% of participants, and pervasive across diagnostic groups. Of the participants, two-thirds (65.9%) were current smokers, 47.4% were obese and 32.4% were sedentary. Of the participants, half (49.8%) had a lifetime history of alcohol abuse/dependence and 50.8% lifetime cannabis abuse/dependence.
Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive, integrative models of recovery to maximize the potential for good health and quality of life for people with psychotic illness.
Burkitt (BL) and lymphoblastic lymphomas (LBL) are highly aggressive diseases with distinct natural histories and clinical presentations. BL mostly occurs in the first two decades of life and accounts for 1–2% of all lymphomas. Three clinical variants are recognized: (1) endemic BL, which is primarily found in equatorial Africa; (2) sporadic BL, which presents worldwide but is the most common type in western countries; and (3) immunodeficiency-associated BL, which is associated with HIV infection. There are important clinical differences in these variants (Table 11.1), with endemic BL involving the jaw, orbit, and paraspinal regions in half of the cases as well as the mesentery and gonads, while sporadic BL mostly involves the distal ileum, cecum, and/or mesentery, and rarely the jaw. When bulky or disseminated disease is present, extranodal involvement of the ovaries, kidney, breasts, and/or CNS may be seen. Clinical presentation in a Berlin–Frankfurt–Munster Group (BFM) series of 152 pediatric patients included advanced stage (III/IV) disease in 38%, bone marrow involvement in 33%, and central nervous system (CNS) disease in 4%. Of the patients in this series, 27% presented as acute leukemia, referred to as the L3 subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) within the French-American-British (FAB) classification, or B-ALL. BL infrequently presents in adults, but does occur with increased frequency in patients with HIV infection.
LBL is most commonly a malignancy of T-cell precursor cells, and, as such, it is identical to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).
Tissue transplantation is an important adjunct to modern medical care and is used daily to save or improve patient lives. Tissue allografts include bone, tendon, corneas, heart valves and others. Increasing utilization may lead to tissue shortages, and tissue procurement organizations continue to explore ways to expand the cadaveric donor pool. Currently more than half of all deaths occur outside the acute care setting.
Many who suffer prehospital deaths might be eligible for non-organ tissue donation.
A retrospective review of electronic prehospital medical records was conducted from May 1, 2008 through December 31, 2009. All prehospital deaths were included irrespective of cause. Once identified, additional medical history was obtained from prehospital, inpatient, and emergency department records. Age, medical history, and time of death were compared to exclusion criteria for four tissue procurement organizations (MTF, LifeNet, LifeCell, EyeBank). After analysis, percentages of eligible donors were calculated.
Over 50,000 prehospital records were reviewed; 432 subjects died in the field and were eligible for analysis. Ages ranged from four to 103 years of age; the average was 68.3 (SD = 20.1) years. After exclusion for age, medical conditions, and time of death, 185 unique patients (42.8%) were eligible for donation to at least one of the four tissue procurement organizations (range 11.6%-34.3%).
After prehospital death, many individuals may be eligible for tissue donation. These findings suggest that future prospective studies exploring tissue donation after prehospital death are indicated. These studies should aim to clarify eligibility criteria, create protocols and infrastructure, and explore the ethical implications of expanding tissue donation to include this population.
ShiroffAM, GaleSC, MerlinMA, CrystalJS, LingerM, ShahAD, BeaumontE, LustigerE, TabakinE, GraciasVH. Enhancing the Tissue Donor Pool through Donation after Death in the Field. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(2):1-4.
Ionically self-assembled monolayers (ISAMs) have recently been shown to spontaneously exhibit a polar ordering that gives rise to a substantial second order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. Here, the deposition of ISAMs has been studied in situ via second harmonic generation (SHG). We show that the adsorption and ordering of a noncentrosymmetric nonlinear optical polymer is constant over a wide range of concentrations. Upon immersion in the NLO-active polyelectrolyte solution, the SHG rises sharply over the first minute. Immersion in the NLO-inactive partner polyelectrolyte leads to a reduction in the SHG signal. Furthermore, when the film is removed from the NLO-active solution and allowed to dry, the SHG increases rapidly as the water evaporates. These studies provide greater understanding of the processes by which noncentrosymmetric order is formed in ISAM films and allows design of improved self- assembled nonlinear optical materials.
Ionically self-assembled monolayers (ISAMs) have recently been shown to spontaneously exhibit a polar ordering that gives rise to substantial second order nonlinear optical response. The deposition of ISAMs has been studied in situ via second harmonic generation. This is a particularly sensitive probe of the growth of nanometer-thick films since the centrosymmetry of the immersion solutions, the substrate, and the container yields no SHG contribution from these bulk components. Upon immersion in the NLO-active polyelectrolyte solution, the SHG rises sharply over the first minute. When a film is immersed into salt water, the SHG decreases significantly only to be restored when the salt solution is replaced with deionized water.
Ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films have been recently shown to spontaneously produce noncentrosymmetric ordering that gives rise to a substantial second order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. Typically, the ISAM films for NLO response are an assemblage of bilayers of oppositely charged polymers whose thickness can be controlled through variation of pH and ionic strength of the immersion solutions. Here, we study the effects of replacing the NLO-active polymer layers with layers of dianionic molecules. Films fabricated exclusively using polyelectrolytes contain some fraction of both randomly oriented and anti-parallel oriented chromophores. The incorporation of dianionic molecules within the ISAM films affords greater χ(2) due to increased net polar orientation of the chromophores.