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The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. The impact of overweight on post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage rates in children and adults is unclear.
Body mass index and post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage were evaluated in all patients treated with tonsillectomy within one year in a tertiary referral centre. Bleeding episodes were categorised according to the Austrian Tonsil Study.
Between June 2011 and June 2012, 300 adults and children underwent tonsillectomy. Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage occurred in 55 patients. Of those, 29 were type A (history of blood in saliva only, no active bleeding), 15 were type B (active bleeding, treatment under local anaesthesia) and 11 were type C (active bleeding, treatment under general anaesthesia). The return to operating theatre rate was 3.7 per cent. Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage was more frequent in adolescents and adults than in children. Overweight or obesity was positively correlated with age. Post-tonsillectomy bleeding was recorded in 11.1 per cent of underweight patients, 18.9 per cent of normal weight patients and 18.7 per cent of overweight patients (p = 0.7). Data stratification (according to age and weight) did not alter the post-tonsillectomy bleeding risk (p = 0.8).
Overweight or obesity did not increase the risk of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage in either children or adults.
Tumours with neuroendocrine differentiation frequently express chromogranin A, synaptophysin and somatostatin receptors. The role of neuroendocrine differentiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is not yet clear.
The presence of chromogranin A, synaptophysin and somatostatin receptors was studied immunohistochemically in 78 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens.
Sparse chromogranin A expression was found in 41 per cent, associated with high chromogranin A messenger RNA expression and the presence of dense core granules. Low synaptophysin expression was found in 18 per cent. The highest staining scores were found for somatostatin receptor 5 (82 per cent), followed by somatostatin receptor 1 (69 per cent) and somatostatin receptor 2 (54 per cent), whereas somatostatin receptors 3 and 4 expression was low. Expression was not correlated with tumour stage or survival.
Cells with neuroendocrine differentiation are sparsely scattered in some head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Their pathophysiological role is elusive. In contrast, somatostatin receptor and particularly somatostatin receptor 5 expression is frequent in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Somatostatin receptor expression is not considered to indicate neuroendocrine differentiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
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