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Inflammatory pseudotumours of the head and neck are rare. A connection has been made between inflammatory pseudotumours and human immunodeficiency virus positivity.
This paper reports a case of an inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with a lesion in the left tonsil and left cervical lymph node in a 49-year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive patient. A histological diagnosis was obtained after biopsy and serial radiological imaging.
Diagnostic uncertainties can lead to unnecessary surgery. It is important to recognise the clinical, radiological and histological indicators of an inflammatory pseudotumour to enable a timely diagnosis and arrange appropriate treatment. In patients with co-morbidities causing immunocompromise, the potential diagnosis of an inflammatory pseudotumour should be considered. This is especially the case in human immunodeficiency virus patients, as inflammatory pseudotumours have been associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which can manifest up to several years after the initiation of, or change in, antiretroviral therapies.
We present two cases of dental implant migration into the maxillary sinus, with subsequent removal via image-guided, transnasal endoscopy.
Presentation of clinical cases, together with a literature review of alternative surgical techniques, the theories behind implant migration, and the benefits of an image-guided, endoscopic approach.
One patient was asymptomatic, and the other had begun to experience sinogenic symptoms after implant displacement. Both patients presented to the ENT clinic, and both underwent the BrainLab protocol to generate computed tomography images for navigational reconstruction. Transnasal endoscopy was carried out with this guidance, and the implants were removed successfully in both cases. Previously used surgical techniques such as the Caldwell-Luc procedure or extraction through the tooth socket have higher rates of conversion to open procedures, more damage to the nasal sinuses and higher post-operative complication rates compared with the transnasal endoscopic approach.
Both patients underwent successful removal of their migrated dental implants with no complications, and neither required any follow-up intervention.
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