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This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion.
The function of 36 Eustachian tubes in 18 patients with head and neck cancer were examined sonotubometrically before, during, and 1, 2 and 3 months after, intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Patients with an increase of 5 dB or less in sound pressure level (dB) during swallowing were categorised as being in the dysfunction group. Additionally, radiation dose distributions were assessed in all Eustachian tubes using three dose–volume histogram parameters.
Twenty-two of 25 normally functioning Eustachian tubes before radiotherapy (88.0 per cent) shifted to the dysfunction group after therapy. All ears that developed otitis media with effusion belonged to the dysfunction group. The radiation dose threshold evaluation revealed that ears with otitis media with effusion received significantly higher doses to the Eustachian tubes.
The results indicate a relationship between radiation dose and Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.
Daily snowmelt rates at a leafless deciduous forest site were 40–85% of those at an open site. Reduced snowmelt rates were caused by a difference in meteorological conditions at the forested site. Solar radiation, net radiation and wind speed were especially reduced in the forest, and relationships between them at the two sites were represented by linear functions. Snowmelt rates at the two sites could be predicted by an energy budget method, and net radiation was the major component in the snowmelt energy at both sites. Differences between snowmelt rates at the two sites were due to net radiation differences over many days, but dependency on net radiation at both sites was reduced under particular meteorological conditions. Parameteric analysis under fixed meteorological conditions indicates that this dependency is changed by wind speed, temperature and humidity, because wind speed is reduced in the forest and decrease of turbulent heat exchange in the forest will be notable under strong wind conditions.
ASCA DSS was intended to carry out unbiased surveys in wide energy range of 0.5-10 keV. The strategy of this project is to survey small sky region with extremely high sensitivity reaching to the source confusion limit of ASCA XRT, in contrast to the Large Sky Survey project (Ueda 1996) which covers much larger sky area with relatively shallow exposure.
The origin of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) radiation has been investigated extensively by soft X-ray deep survey imaging observations with Einstein and ROSAT. In contrast, the lack of telescopes capable of detecting hard X-rays has prevented us from extensive study of the nature of the CXB in the energy range above 2 keV before ASCA.
Infrared Imaging Surveyor (IRIS, officially Astro-F) is a satellite which will be launched in the winter of 2003. The main purpose of the IRIS mission is an all sky survey in the mid- and far-IR with a flux limit much deeper than that of IRAS. In order to examine the performance of the survey and to find a suitable set of bandpasses for tracing galaxy evolution and picking up protogalaxy candidates as effective as possible using IRIS, we estimated the FIR galaxy counts based on a simple model with various sets of cosmological parameters and evolution types.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
We aimed to examine the clinical usefulness of a new World Health Organization classification scheme for salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and to identify the factors most strongly associated with prognosis and outcome.
The clinicopathological features of 45 patients who received treatment for mucoepidermoid carcinoma between 1986 and 2010 were retrospectively investigated.
The overall disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 81.8 per cent. The rate for patients with low-grade tumours (92.5 per cent) was significantly higher than that for patients with intermediate or high-grade tumours (52.2 per cent). Univariate analysis revealed that five factors were significantly associated with five-year survival: age, tumour stage classification, lymph node status, histological grade and treatment method. Four factors were significant in multivariate analysis: age, sex, tumour stage classification and lymph node status.
The new World Health Organization classification was useful in predicting disease progression in patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Patients with high-grade tumours or other prognostic factors positively associated with disease progression should be carefully evaluated and monitored.
The fabrication of a thin film optoelectronic device involves the exposure of the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) to a high process temperature. Indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO4 or IGZO) is a well known TCO with high optical transparency, moderate conductivity and high mobility. However, its electrical properties deteriorate after subsequent high temperature processes in air atmosphere. On the other hand indium tin oxide (ITO) has higher conductivity than IGZO and better thermal stability. Therefore, IGZO/ITO bilayers have been deposited on glass by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature and subsequently annealed at high temperatures in order to study their thermal stability. In the present work, a-IGZO layers with a thickness ranging from 10 nm to 100 nm were deposited over a 50 nm thick ITO layer. Results are compared with those from a single IGZO layered thin film without the ITO bottom layer. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the multilayers are studied with the use of scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and Hall measurement. An IGZO optimal thickness of 50 nm is found to improve the bilayer thermal stability at temperatures upto 400 °C keeping good opto-electrical properties. The sheet resistance for the optimized IGZO/ITO composite films is about 22 Ohm/sq, and the transmittance in the visible range is about 90%. The composite shows an excellent mobility above 40 cm2 /V-s and thus can be potentially applied as channel layer in thin film transistors (TFTs)
Highly transparent composite electrodes made of multilayers of In- and Ga-doped ZnO and Cu (IGZO/Cu/IGZO) thin films (30/3-9/30 nm thick) are deposited onto flexible substrates at room temperature and by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer stack has been studied in accordance with the Cu morphology. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayers are studied with the UV–Vis spectrophotometry, Hall measurement and four point probe analyses. Results are compared with those from a single IGZO layered thin film. The average optical transmittance and sheet resistance both decreases with increase of copper thickness and has been optimized at 6 nm Cu middle layer thickness. The Haacke figure of merit (FOM) has been calculated to evaluate the performance of the films. The highest FOM achieved is 6 x 10-3 Ω-1 for a Cu thickness of 6 nm with a sheet resistance of 12.2 Ω/sq and an average transmittance of 86%. The multilayered thin films are annealed upto 150 °C in vacuum, forming gas and O2 environments and the optical and electrical properties are studied and compared against the as-deposited samples. Thus IGZO/Cu/IGZO multilayer is a promising flexible electrode material for the next-generation flexible optoelectronics.
Nonvolatile unipolar resistive switching has been observed in Sm doped BFO thin films in Pt/Sm: BFO/SRO stack geometry. The initial forming voltage was found to be ∼ 11 V. After the forming process repeatable switching of the resistance of Sm:BFO film was obtained between low and high resistance states with nearly constant resistance ratio ∼ 105 and non overlapping switching voltages in the range of 0.7-1 V and 4-6 V respectively. The temperature dependent measurements of the resistance of the device indicated metallic and semiconducting conduction behavior in low and high resistance states respectively. The current conduction mechanism of the Pt/Sm:BFO/SRO device in low resistance states was found to be dominated by the Ohmic behavior while in case of high resistance state and at high voltages it deviated significantly from normal Ohmic behavior and was found to correspond the Pool-Frankel (PF) emission. The Pt/Sm:BFO/SRO structure also showed efficient photo-response in high and low resistance states with increase in photocurrent which was significantly higher in low resistance state when illuminated with white light.
Effect of oxygen to nickel molar ratio (O2/Ni) on the crystallinity of atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD) grown NiO at 500°C is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis including grazing incident angle θ of 0.6°, θ-2θ, ɸ and rocking curve scan are employed for crystallographic characterization. Furthermore, surface roughness is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No evidence of diffraction peaks in X-ray grazing incident angle measurement confirms that all the grown NiO films are well oriented along a certain direction. θ-2θ scan results further indicate that the samples are highly oriented only along  direction on (0001) sapphire substrates. The analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve scan of (111) plane shows that higher O2/Ni ratio results in better crystallinity. The best crystallinity is achieved with FWHM as low as 0.106° at (111) rocking curve scan corresponding to 82.57nm grain size. AFM measurement shows that NiO films grown with higher O2/Ni ratio have smoother surface morphology.
We employ Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport that occurs within the two-dimensional electron gas formed at a ZnO/ZnMgO heterojunction. Steady-state and transient electron transport results are presented. We find that at high fields, increases in the free electron concentration result in decreases in the electron drift velocities.
Manganese oxide based nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel process. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol were used as alternative solvent during sol-gel process with manganese acetate as precursor for the preparation of pristine manganese oxide. Hybrid MnOx modified by additions of carbon nanotubes was further prepared. Smallest particle size was observed for manganese oxide prepared from propanol, with diameters range from 16 nm to 50nm. XRD results showed that the as prepared manganese oxide based samples at calcination temperature of 300°C and above were composed of Mn2O3 as dominant phase, with Mn3O4 as minor phase. Specific capacitance measured from two electrode systems of manganese oxide prepared from methanol, ethanol, and propanol at scan rate of 10 mV/s were 88.3, 66.0, 104.8 F/g and the result for the hybrid sample was 140.5 F/g. The highest capacitance of the MnOx revealed a specific capacitance of 231.4 F/g when a 1:1 mixture of propanaol and methanol was employed as the solvent for the sol preparation. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) also showed superior electrochemical properties of the hybrid sample over pristine manganese oxide samples.
We studied the transport properties of the Fe/MgO/Fe and Fe/Ag/MgO/Ag/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with 13-layer MgO barrier under bias voltage based on first-principles calculations. Our results showed that two features determine the TMR value decreases with bias of Fe/MgO/Fe MTJ: (1) interfacial states lying at 1.06 eV in spin down channel (2) the energy level of the spin down Δ1 band of the Fe electrode. Our results showed that an inserted Ag mono-layer at Fe/MgO interface can remarkably improve the TMR effect at a high bias voltage.
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a promising material for an optical switch due to the ultrafast and reversible transition between its two phases with contrasting optical, as well as electronic, properties. Meanwhile, erbium (Er3+) has been a standard optical amplifier for the current fiber-optic communication system. Hence, a combination of the two could be expected to make an optical switch capable of simultaneous optical amplification. In the present work, the optical switching and photoluminescence of Er-implanted VO2 were successfully demonstrated. Post-implantation annealing at 800°C or above was seen crucial for the activation of the Er centers in the VO2 crystals.
We review some recent results related to the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk wurtzite zinc oxide. We employ three-valley Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport within this material for the purposes of this analysis. Using these results, we devise a means of rendering transparent the electron drift velocity enhancement offered by transient electron transport over steady-state electron transport. A comparison, with results corresponding to gallium nitride, indium nitride, and aluminum nitride, is provided. The device implications of these results are then presented.
Strong short electric field pulses are used to generate broadband terahertz radiation. Understanding the transport properties under such conditions is very important for the understanding of numerous terahertz photonic and electronic devices. In this paper, we report on transport simulations of the electrons within bulk wurtzite zinc oxide for pulsed high electric fields, with pulse durations of up to 400 fs. We focus on how key electron transport characteristics, namely the drift velocity and the corresponding average energy, vary with time since the onset of the pulse. For sufficiently high-field strength selections, we find that both of these parameters exhibit peaks. In addition, an electron drift velocity undershoot is observed following this peak. A contrast with the case of gallium nitride is considered; undershoot is not observed for the case of this material. Reasons for these differences in behavior are suggested.
Mg doped ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films and the saturation magnetization (MS) increases at first as the film’s thickness increases and then decreases. The MS value as high as ∼15.76 emu/cm3 was achieved for the Mg-doped ZnO film of thickness 120 nm. The optical band gap of the films determined to be in the range 3.42 to 3.52 eV.