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This study aimed to propose appropriate management for odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis.
Thirty-one adult patients with odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis undergoing maxillary extraction were retrospectively analysed. Patients with (n = 21) and without (n = 10) oroantral fistula on computed tomography were classified. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed when sinusitis did not improve after extraction. The critical indicators for surgical requirement in the management of odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis were analysed.
Sinusitis significantly improved after extraction in both groups. Patients without oroantral fistula had significantly more severe remnant sinusitis than those with oroantral fistula after extraction on computed tomography (p = 0.0037). The requirement for functional endoscopic sinus surgery was statistically significant for patients without orofacial fistula over those with orofacial fistula (p < 0.0001). The surgical improvement ratio was 93 per cent.
The absence of oroantral fistula and severe sinusitis can be critical indicators for the requirement of functional endoscopic sinus surgery after extraction in the management of odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis.
This study aimed to determine the predictors of disease progression after functional endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
A total of 281 adult chronic rhinosinusitis patients who underwent primary bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery between 2007 and 2017 and had at least 12 months of follow-up endoscopic evaluation were examined. Patients were divided into eosinophilic (n = 205) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups (n = 76). In order to determine adverse factors, post-operative endoscopic appearance scores were analysed in relation to the pre- and intra-operative findings using multiple regression analyses.
The post-operative course of eosinophilic cases deteriorated over time, like the early period for non-eosinophilic cases. Frontal sinus polyps recurred early in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Multivariate analyses indicated young adulthood, asthma, high computed tomography score and frontal sinus polyps as significant adverse predictors.
Early, appropriate estimation of sinonasal conditions appears to be crucial for successful surgical management of chronic rhinosinusitis.
We study the interaction of relativistic jets with their environment, using 3-dimen- sional relativistic particle-in-cell simulations for two cases of jet composition: (i) electron-proton (e− − p+) and (ii) electron-positron (e±) plasmas containing helical magnetic fields. We have performed simulations of “global” jets containing helical magnetic fields in order to examine how helical magnetic fields affect kinetic instabilities such as the Weibel instability, the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Mushroom instability. We have found that these kinetic instabilities are suppressed and new types of instabilities can grow. For the e− − p+ jet, a recollimation-like instability occurs and jet electrons are strongly perturbed, whereas for the e± jet, a recollimation-like instability occurs at early times followed by kinetic instability and the general structure is similar to a simulation without a helical magnetic field. We plan to perform further simulations using much larger systems to confirm these new findings.
In this paper, the effect of shock compression on the synthesis of a Bi-based oxide superconductor was investigated. Bi1.85-Pb0.35-Sr1.90-Ca2.05-Cu3.05-Ox calcined powder was shock-compacted around 20 GPa and 30 GPa, and divided specimens were annealed at 845 °C for 1, 6 and 48 hours. The specimens were evaluated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.
Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is one of the elegant material because its uses in various fields. In this study, AgNPs have been prepared by using Peltophorum pterocarpum (PP) flower extract as reducing and capping agent and aqueous silver nitrate (aq.AgNO3) as silver precursor. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Ultra Violet - Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), which reveals the formation of nanosized particles. The UV-Vis spectrum shows an absorption peak around 430nm. HR-TEM images of AgNPs with clear morphology and well dispersed prepared AgNPs.
In this paper, the authors have reported the structural and photoluminescence (PL) studies of pure and nickel (Ni) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by the solution combustion method. The structural, morphological and optical studies are carried out by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and PL spectra, respectively. The XRD pattern indicates that the prepared particles are in hexagonal wurtzite structure with the average crystalline size is around 35-50nm. Room temperature PL shows the near band edge related emission and the results are related several intrinsic defects in the ZnO nanoparticles.
To increase X-ray photon number generated by laser-cluster interaction, it is important to understand the dependence of X-ray generation on cluster size. We carried out Xe K-shell X-ray generation using a conical nozzle with Xe clusters, the radius of which was controllable by adjusting the backing pressure. The experiment clarifies the result that the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number increases with increasing cluster radius from 8 to 12 nm, and saturates at the radius between 12 and 17 nm. We also investigated the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number dependence on laser intensity, and found that the threshold laser intensity of the Xe K-shell X-ray generation exists between 2 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 W/cm2.
We investigated particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized
relativistic jet propagating into an unmagnetized plasma. Strong magnetic fields generated
in the trailing shock contribute to the electrons transverse deflection and acceleration.
We have calculated, self-consistently, the radiation from electrons accelerated in these
turbulent magnetic fields. We found that the synthetic spectra depend on the bulk Lorentz
factor of the jet, its temperature and strength of the generated magnetic fields. We have
also investigated accelerated electrons in strong magnetic fields generated by kinetic
shear (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instabilities. The calculated properties of the emerging
radiation will guide our understanding of the complex time evolution and/or spectral
structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants.
ZnO nanorods were grown up from as-deposited ZnO film on which the zinc self-catalysts generated by a novel reducing method. Well aligned ZnO nanorods with a uniform high aspect ratio were grown up on multi-annealed samples. The length of nanorods depended significantly on the reaction time in the hydrothermal synthesis.
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs in the shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and for particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The “jitter” radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has properties different from synchrotron radiation calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure of gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. In order to calculate radiation from first principles and go beyond the standard synchrotron model, we have used PIC simulations. We present synthetic spectra to compare with the spectra obtained from Fermi observations.
X-ray-excited luminescence of GaN doped with Eu ions as a luminescent center was observed in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 650 nm. Three peaks at 375 nm, 550 nm and 622 nm were found. To survey the mechanism of the photoluminescence due to non-resonance excitation, photoluminescence X-ray excitation spectra are also measured. The mechanism of the luminescence occurrence was briefly discussed based on the model developed by Emura et al.
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs in the shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and for particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The “jitter” radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties from synchrotron radiation calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure of gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. In order to calculate radiation from first principles and go beyond the standard synchrotron model, we have used PIC simulations. We will present detailed spectra for conditions relevant to various astrophysical sites of collisionless shock formation. In particular we will discuss application to GRBs and SNRs.
We report an extremely rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region, presenting as acute mastoiditis. We also review the 16 previously reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region.
A 65-year-old man presented with left-sided, post-auricular swelling and pain. Acute mastoiditis was diagnosed, with computed tomography demonstrating destruction of the bony plates of the posterior cranial fossa and sigmoid sinus. Initial surgery revealed a cholesteatoma in the mastoid, with no extension into the aditus ad antrum or attic. These findings were confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the surgical specimen, the latter using involucrin. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in a second operation.
Including this case, only four of the 17 reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region showed post-auricular pain or swelling, indicating acute mastoiditis. Clinicians should bear in mind that congenital cholesteatoma may be present in patients presenting with mastoiditis, particularly adults.
The wettability of Pb-free Sn-based solder over the Cu-based Cu60Zr30Ti10 bulk metallic glass surface was investigated. We observed that the as-polished surface was nonwetting for the solder, which was due to the surface oxide layer of ZrOx formed in air. After complete removal of the oxide layer, a thin layer of Ag was deposited on the clean Cu60Zr30Ti10 surface. The Ag-covered Cu60Zr30Ti10 surface showed relatively high resistivity to the reoxidation even in air, and thus the wettability of the Cu60Zr30Ti10 surface for the Sn-based solder was greatly improved.
Three cDNAs encoding rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) homologues were found in the Babesia gibsoni EST database. Based on similarities to BgRAP-1a, which was identified previously by serological screening of a cDNA merozoite library, the two new genes were designated BgRAP-1b (33·7%) and BgRAP-1c (57%). Mice antiserum raised against each recombinant protein reacted specifically with B. gibsoni parasites as determined by Western blotting, which showed native molecular sizes of the BgRAP-1a (51 kDa), BgRAP-1b (53 kDa) and BgRAP-1c (47 kDa) consistent with predictable molecular weights. Immunofluoresence using these antibodies revealed localization of all BgRAP-1s within the matrix of merozoites; however, BgRAP-1a appeared to diverge from the other two when it was found secreted into the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes. Apical localization of all 3 BgRAP-1s during the extracellular stage of the parasite combined with their ability to bind a canine erythrocyte membrane fraction was suggestive of a role for these proteins in erythrocyte attachment. Lastly, the ability of these recombinant proteins to be used as diagnostic reagents was tested by ELISA and the sensitivities of BgRAP-1a and BgRAP-1c were found increased through N-terminal truncation. Taken together, our data suggest divergent roles for the 3 BgRAP-1s in the merozoite stage of B. gibsoni.
Peptidases of parasitic protozoa are currently under intense investigation in order to identify novel virulence factors, drug targets, and vaccine candidates, except in Babesia. Leucine aminopeptidases in protozoa, such as Plasmodium and Leishmania, have been identified to be involved in free amino acid regulation. We report here the molecular and enzymatic characterization, as well as the localization of a leucine aminopeptidase, a member of the M17 cytosolic aminopeptidase family, from B. gibsoni (BgLAP). A functional recombinant BgLAP (rBgLAP) expressed in Escherichia coli efficiently hydrolysed synthetic substrates for aminopeptidase, a leucine substrate. Enzyme activity of the rBgLAP was found to be optimum at pH 8·0 and at 37°C. The substrate profile was slightly different from its homologue in P. falciprum. The activity was also strongly dependent on metal divalent cations, and was inhibited by bestatin, which is a specific inhibitor for metalloprotease. These results indicated that BgLAP played an important role in free amino acid regulation.
Influenza B virus reinfection in Japanese children was studied epidemi-ologically during 1979–91 and virologically during 1985–91. During this investigation, there were four epidemics caused by influenza B viruses, each of which accompanied antigenic drift. Between the epidemics in 1987/88 and 1989/90, the viruses changed drastically, both genetically and antigenically. The minimum rate of reinfection with influenza B virus during the whole period was 3–25% depending on the influenza seasons. The antigens of primary and reinfection strains of influenza B virus isolated from 18 children during 1985–90, which covered three epidemic periods, were studied by haemagglutination inhibition tests. The results showed that the viruses isolated in the 1984/85 and 1987/88 influenza seasons, which belonged to the same lineage, were antigenically close, and reinfection occurred with these viruses. The results of amino-acid analysis of the HA1 polypeptide of these viruses corresponded with those of antigenic analysis. There were no specific amino-acid changes shared by the primary infection and reinfection influenza B viruses; the patients were infected with the viruses epidemic at that time.
The dense granule antigen 4 (GRA4) is known as an immundominant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii and, therefore, is considered as a vaccine candidate. For further evaluation of its vaccine effect, a recombinant plasmid and vaccinia virus, both expressing GRA4, were constructed, and a heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime was performed in a mouse model. The mice immunized with the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime showed a high level of specific antibody response against GRA4 and a significantly high level of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and survived completely against a subsequent challenge infection with a lethal dose of T. gondii. In addition, the formation of cysts was inhibited in the mice vaccinated with the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime. These results demonstrate that the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime using DNA and a vaccinia virus, both expressing GRA4, could induce both humoral and cellular immune responses and provide effective protection against lethal acute and chronic T. gondii infections in mice.