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This study investigated the position of adduction thread attachment, pulling direction and fixation position in revision arytenoid adduction surgery performed in two patients with left vocal fold palsy in whom satisfactory speech improvement had not been obtained by arytenoid adduction and type 1 thyroplasty.
Revision arytenoid adduction surgery was performed with the vocal fold in the midline position in both cases. A type 1 thyroplasty procedure was subsequently added in one case because of worsened quality of speech following arytenoid adduction.
Results and conclusion
Although the arytenoid adduction procedure is conceptually well established, there is still room for debate concerning the actual surgical procedures used. The technique described in this report is effective, suggesting that it is worthy of recognition as an index procedure.
In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
The number of tests performed is an important surveillance indicator. We illustrate this point using HIV surveillance data, focusing on Tokyo and Okinawa, two prefectures with high HIV notification rates in Japan. Restricting to data reported from local public health centres and affiliate centres where testing data are accessible, we assessed HIV surveillance data during 2007–2014, based on the annual HIV notification rate (per 100 000 population), HIV testing rate (per 100 000 population) and proportion testing HIV-positive (positivity). Nationally, testing activity and positivity showed an inverse relationship; in 2008, the testing rate peaked, but positivity was lowest. While notification rates were higher for Tokyo (median = 0.98, range = 0.89–1.33) than Okinawa (median = 0.61, range = 0.42–1.09), Okinawa had slightly higher testing rates (median = 187, range = 158–274) relative to Tokyo (median = 172, range = 163–210). Positivity was substantially lower in Okinawa (median = 0.34%, range = 0.24–0.45%) compared with Tokyo (median = 0.57%, range = 0.46–0.67%). Relative to the national testing rate (median = 85, range = 80–115) and positivity (median = 0.34%, range = 0.28–0.36%), Tokyo had higher positivity, despite more testing. In 2014 in Okinawa, all three indicators increased, providing a strong reason to be concerned as positivity increased despite more testing. Together with other information, accounting for testing and positivity improve interpretation of surveillance data to guide public health assessments.
Donor-acceptor mixed-stack charge-transfer (CT) compounds can be regarded as a model system for charge carrier separation in molecular-scale donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Here we investigated fundamental photocarrier generation characteristics in single crystals of a donoracceptor mixed-stack system, phenothiazine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (PTZ-TCNQ). The laser beam-induced current (LBIC) measurement on the crystals allowed the discrimination between the exciton and the photocarrier diffusion on the basis of the observed spatial decay profiles. We found that the photocarriers are directly generated by higher-lying CT band excitation and exhibit extremely long diffusion length reaching more than 10 μm. We discuss the origin of the efficient photocarrier generation in terms of the geminate electron-hole pair formation.
In this contribution, we show that the dominant electroluminescent emission of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells follows a diode law, whose radiative ideality factor nr is larger than one. This is in contrast to crystalline silicon and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells for which nr equals one. As a consequence, the existing quantitative analysis for the extraction of the local junction voltage Vj(r) from luminescence images fails for a-Si:H solar cells. We expand the existing analysis method, and include the radiative ideality factor nr into the model. With this modification, we are able to determine the local junction voltage Vj(r) for a-Si:H solar cells and modules. We investigated the local junction voltage Vj(r) and the radiative ideality factor nr for both initial and stabilized a-Si:H solar modules. Furthermore, we show that the apparent radiative ideality factor is affected by the spectral sensitivity of the used camera system.
In this paper we present the design of an optical transmission system, using plastic optical fiber (POF), which operates in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The optical signals are generated by modulated visible LEDs, transmitted through POF and at the reception end a pin-pin photodetector is implemented. A computer simulation tool dedicated to the analysis of optical circuits was used for preliminary analysis of the optical system. The performance of the optical link was analyzed by BER prediction variation on the transmission rate. The tested optical system was assembled using high efficiency LEDs of the same wavelengths, a commercial POF and a pin-pin photodetector based on a-SiC:H/a-SI:H. This detector behaves as an optical filter with controlled wavelength sensitivity. Different optical signals, obtained by adequate modulation of LED optical sources, were coupled into the POF and the combined optical signal at the fiber termination was directed onto the photodetector active area. The output photocurrent was measured with and without optical bias. Results compare the use of a pin-pin transducer device in free space and in a POF transmission link.
PECVD growth of the microcrystalline silicon junction on a highly textured amorphous top cell often leads to defective absorber layers and finally to low quality bottom cell. This paper reports on the current status of using an innovative smoothening/reflective layer (SRL) as alternative intermediate reflector between top and bottom cell of a Micromorph tandem device deposited on as-grown highly textured LPCVD ZnO layer. Manufacturing of the SRL layer is realized by “liquid phase” deposition technologies. Optical and electrical properties, smoothening effect and photoelectrical results of Micromorph tandem devices are discussed. The implementation of our novel SRL results in the growth of a crack-free bottom cell and to an efficient current transfer from the bottom to the top cell.
In the last decades many techniques have been proposed to manufacture thin (<50µm) silicon solar cells. The main issues in manufacturing thin solar cells are the unavailability of a reliable method to produce thin silicon foils with contained material losses (kerf-losses) and the difficulties in handling and processing such fragile foils. A way to solve both issues is to grow an epitaxial foil on top of a weak sintered porous silicon layer. The porous silicon layer is formed by electrochemical etching on a thick silicon substrate and then annealed to close the top surface. This surface is employed as seed layer for the epitaxial growth of a silicon layer which can be partially processed while attached on the substrate that provides mechanical support. Afterward, the foil can be bonded on glass, detached and further processed at module level. The efficiency of the final solar cell will depend on the quality of the epitaxial layer which, in turn, depends on the seed layer smoothness.
Several parameters can be adjusted to change the morphology and, hence, the properties of the porous layer, both in the porous silicon formation and the succeeding thermal treatment. This work focuses on the effect of the parameters that control the porous silicon formation on the structure of the porous silicon layer after annealing and, more specifically, on the roughness of the top surface. The reported analysis shows how the roughness of the seed layer can be reduced to improve the quality of the epitaxial growth.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon betavoltaic devices are studied both by simulation and experimentally. Devices exhibiting a power density of 0.1 μW/cm2 upon Tritium exposure were fabricated. However, a significant degradation of the performance is taking place, especially during the first hours of the exposure. The degradation behavior differs from sample to sample as well as from published results in the literature. Comparisons with degradation from beta particles suggest an effect of tritium rather than a creation of defects by beta particles.
We assessed vascular programming in genetically identical monochorionic twin pairs with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated differently in utero by serial amnioreduction or fetal laser arterial photocoagulation. This case–control study re-assessed four twin groups at median 11 years comprising 20 pairs of monochorionic diamniotic twins: nine treated by amnioreduction (TTTS-amnio) and eleven by laser (TTTS-laser) with seven monochorionic and six dichorionic control pairs. Outcome measures were current blood pressure (BP), brachio-radial arterial stiffness derived from pulse wave velocity (PWV), resting microcirculation (Flux) and response to heating and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia measured using laser Doppler. Potential confounders [PWV and BP at first study, current height, weight, heart rate and twin type (ex-recipient, ex-donor or heavier/lighter of pair)] were accounted for by Mixed Linear Models statistical methodology. PWV dichorionic > monochorionic (P = 0.024); systolic and diastolic BP dichorionic > TTTS-amnio and TTTS-laser (P = 0.004, P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, P = 0.02, respectively). Within-twin pair pattern of PWV discordance was similar in laser treated and dichorionic controls (heavier-born > lighter), opposite to TTTS-amnio and monochorionic controls. Flux monochorionic > dichorionic (P = 0.044) and heavier > lighter-born (P = 0.024). TTTS-laser and dichorionic diamniotic showed greatest hyperaemic responses (dichorionic > TTTS-amnio or monochorionic controls (P = 0.007, P = 0.025). Hyperaemic responses were slower in heavier-born twins (P = 0.005). In summary, monochorionic twins had lower BP, arterial stiffness and increased resting vasodilatation than dichorionic twins implying shared fetal circulation affects vascular development. Vascular responses in laser-TTTS were similar to dichorionic and opposite to TTTS-amnio suggesting a lasting effect of fetal therapy on vascular health.
This paper presents our material studies on hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) and microcrystalline silicon-germanium alloy (μc-Si1-xGex:H) thin films for the development of high efficiency p-i-n junction solar cells. In μc-Si:H solar cells, we have evaluated the structural properties of the intrinsic μc-Si:H layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at high deposition rates (>2 nm/s). Several design criteria for the device grade μc-Si:H are proposed in terms of crystallographic orientation, grain size and grain boundary passivation. Meanwhile, in μc-Si1-xGex:H solar cells, we have succeeded in boosting the infrared response of solar cell upon Ge incorporation up to x∼0.2. Nevertheless, a degradation of solar cell parameters is observed for large Ge contents (x>0.2) and thick i-layers (> 1 μm), which is attributed to the influence of the Ge dangling bonds that act as acceptorlike states in undoped μc-Si1-xGex:H. To improve the device performance, we introduce an oxygen doping technique to compensate the native defect acceptors in μc-Si1-xGex:H p-i-n solar cells.
A hospital disaster drill is commonly carried out based on the activities assigned beforehand by the occupational description. However, it is difficult for each staff the role is fixing to understand the global image of a disaster correspondence in a hospital disaster when their role is assigned and fixed. We have developed the understandable drill about the whole practice at each hospital in disaster. We keenly realized the necessity of a standard disaster medicine. Therefore we have developed the disaster drill which can be held per hospital. As a goal of a course, each hospital personnel could understand the global image of the disaster, and aimed at the daily course which can master necessary minimum skill to correspond a disaster in each hospital. From the reasons above, we created the course which consisted of a lecture, individual skill training, and a gross training. As essential skill, it starts with (1) management of disaster countermeasures office (2) management of triage post (3) treatment at room (4) support of conveyance between hospitals (5) information control. In order to employ these individual skill booths efficiently we divided attendances into five groups. Five hospitals started from 2008, were carried out 11 times, and about 500 persons took this disaster drill on a course. We expect that cost to bellower, the course to be simpler, and the quality of training will improve by holding this course repeatedly.
The coordination of the carbon atoms in the diamond-like carbon (DLC) films formed by Ar gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) assisted deposition of fullerene was investigated using synchrotron radiation. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of the carbon K-edge of the DLC films formed by various methods were measured over the excitation energy range 275-320 eV, using synchrotron radiation. On the basis of the analysis of the peak corresponding the transition of the excitation electron from carbon 1s orbital to Φ orbital, relative sp2 contents of various DLC films were determined. The DLC films formed by Ar GCIB assisted fullerene deposition were found to consist of a high sp3 hybridized carbon.
CMP slurry with inorganic/resin abrasive was investigated for the Al/low k damascene wiring.  The slurry showed less scratching, higher polishing rate and better planarity. These advantages are attributable to the elasticity of the resin. The soft resin particle behaves as a cushion and prevents the scratching caused by agglomerated inorganic particles and foreign material. The springy feature of the resin particle increases the selectivity of removal rate at convex portions and concave portions. Furthermore, the pressure is loaded to the Al film surface effectively through the resin particle and higher CMP rate can be achieved even without chemicals such as oxidizers and acids.  This chemical free polishing would be the advantageous for preventing the corrosion of Al.
Magnetic tunnel junctions of Co0.9Fe0.1/SrTiO3 (STO)/ La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) with a spin-valve structure having an antiferromagnetic MnIr layer have been fabricated by sputtering. Junction magnetoresistance (MR) behavior and its dependence on the bias voltage are examined for junctions with epitaxial STO barrier formed under different sputtering conditions. Spin dependent transport measurements show that these junctions exhibit spin-valve type MR loops with an inverse (positive) MR of the ratio of 14-22 % at 4.2 K. The inverse MR observed is asymmetric with respect to the bias voltage direction. Stoichiometric STO barrier, as characterized by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, is found to result in very large asymmetric bias dependence, while the junctions with nonstoichiometric STO barrier exhibit the symmetric bias dependence. Our results suggest that the nonstoichiometry of STO barrier modifies the electronic structures of electrode/barrier interfaces, and thereby reducing the asymmetry of bias voltage dependence of junction MR.
Residual stress in molecular beam epitaxially (MBE) grown GaAs films on 4°-off (100)Si substrates is investigated with X-ray diffraction technique. It is experimentally confirmed that the GaAs lattice suffers tetragonal deformation with the c-axis being . The GaAs lattice tilts by approximately 0.2° towards the tilted direction of the substrate. It is found that two-dimensional compressive stress dominates in GaAs films thinner than 0.3 μm in thickness, while two-dimensional tensile stress dominates in thicker films. The variation of the stress is understood in terms of a combination of misfit stress and thermal stress. The residual tensile stress is larger than 1 × 109 dyn/cm2 in the films thicker than I pm. The effect of the stress on the reliability of semiconductor laser diodes is discussed.
Si samples, with and without masking oxide films, implanted with various doses of As, P, or BF2 have been evaluated on the formation of titanium suicides from titanium films. In all cases, suicide reaction for implantation with masking oxide films is more difficult than that for implantation without masking oxide films. Suicide reaction becomes more difficult with decreasing implant energy in the range over a critical dose. In the case of implantation with masking oxide films, knocked oxygen has been found at the surface of Si substrate. Suicide formation after removing the surface layers containing considerable amount of knocked oxygen with argon back-sputtering is as easy as suicide formation for implantation without masking oxide. The difficulty of Ti silicidation for implantation with masking oxide films is believed to be due to the effects of interference from knocked oxygen.
GaAs etching with Cl2 gas is studied with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Both Cl2 gas and tunnel electron assist etching occur under the tip during scanning and the etching profile is found to depend on the gas flow time. GaAs and Si patterns with nanometer dimensions are fabricated by STM assist etching with a very low voltage (-IV). Also atomic layer etching of GaAs is demonstrated by STM assist-etching using a Cl adlayer.
To clarify the relation between high magnetic permeability and magnetic phases of Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 ribbons, the process of precipitation was investigated by using the Xray diffraction, DTA, VSM and the Mössbauer spectra at various annealing temperatures. The volume fraction of each magnetic phase was estimated. The sample annealed at 853K which shows maximum permeability is composed of partially ordered Fe3Si(70%), Fe(B) solid solution(10%) and amorphous(20%) phases. The relative permeability of the sample annealed below 853K increases with increasing the volume fraction of both of the Fe3Si partially ordered and the Fe(B) solid solution phases. The relationship between tile permeability and the volume fraction is interpreted by the random anisotropy model.