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To review the management of temporal bone fractures at a major trauma centre and introduce an evidence-based protocol.
A review of reports of head computed tomography performed for trauma from January 2012 to July 2018 was conducted. Recorded data fields included: mode of trauma, patient age, associated intracranial injury, mortality, temporal bone fracture pattern, symptoms and intervention.
Of 815 temporal bone fracture cases, records for 165 patients met the inclusion criteria; detailed analysis was performed on the records of these patients.
Temporal bone fractures represent high-energy trauma. Initial management focuses on stabilisation of the patient and treatment of associated intracranial injury. Acute ENT intervention is directed towards the management of facial palsy and cerebrospinal fluid leak, and often requires multidisciplinary team input. The role of nerve conduction assessment for immediate facial palsy is variable across the UK. The administration of high-dose steroids in patients with temporal bone fracture and intracranial injury is not advised. A robust evidence-based approach is introduced for the management of significant ENT complications associated with temporal bone fractures.
To date, there is a lack of consensus regarding the use of both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative assessment of cochlear implant candidates.
Twenty-five patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. ‘Control scores’ describing the expected visualisation of specific features by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were established. An independent radiological review of all computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan features was then compared to the control scores and the findings recorded.
Agreement with control scores occurred in 83 per cent (20 out of 24) of computed tomography scans and 91 per cent (21 out of 23) of magnetic resonance imaging scans. Radiological abnormalities were demonstrated in 16 per cent of brain scans and 18 per cent of temporal bone investigations.
Assessment in the paediatric setting constitutes a special situation given the likelihood of congenital temporal bone abnormalities and associated co-morbidities that may be relevant to surgery and prognosis following cochlear implantation. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging contribute valuable information and remain necessary in paediatric cochlear implant pre-operative assessment.
This study aimed to compare the reporting of high-resolution computed tomography of temporal bones for otosclerosis by general radiologists and a neuroradiologist within a local National Health Service Trust.
A retrospective case review of 36 high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography images obtained between 2008 and 2015 from 40 otosclerosis patients (surgically confirmed) was performed in a district general hospital setting. The main outcome measures were correct identification of otosclerosis by high-resolution computed tomography and adherence to the petrous temporal bone imaging protocol.
Correct diagnosis rates were significantly different when made by general radiologists vs a neuroradiologist (p < 0.0001; two-tailed Fisher's exact test). None of the high-resolution computed tomography scans adhered to the temporal bone imaging protocol.
The use of high-resolution computed tomography for suspected otosclerosis is helpful for diagnosis, disease staging, obtaining informed consent, surgical planning and prognosis. This study suggests that radiological detection of otosclerotic changes by high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone is significantly better when performed by a dedicated neuroradiologist than by a general radiologist. Use of a standardised temporal bone computed tomography protocol is recommended to provide consistently high-quality images for maximising disease detection.
To investigate the assessment and management of paediatric snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea in UK otolaryngology departments.
A telephone questionnaire survey of UK otolaryngology departments was conducted over a 16-week period.
The response rate was 61 per cent (85 out of 139 trusts). Use of pre-operative pulse oximetry was reported by 84 per cent of respondents, mainly to diagnose obstructive sleep apnoea (73 per cent) or stratify post-operative risk (46 per cent). Thirty-one per cent of respondents reported using post-operative pulse oximetry. Twenty-five per cent of respondents have a dedicated management protocol for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring. Thirty-four per cent require prior clinical commissioning group approval before performing surgery. Fifty-eight per cent of respondents reported following up their obstructive sleep apnoea patients after surgery. The mean follow-up period (±standard deviation) was 6.8 ± 1.2 weeks.
There is variation in the assessment and management of paediatric snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea across the UK, particularly in the use of pre- and post-operative pulse oximetry monitoring, and further guidelines regarding this are necessary.
To evaluate the effect of body mass index and neck length on endotracheal tube movement during neck extension in thyroidectomy.
A prospective study was conducted of 30 patients undergoing thyroidectomy during an 8-month period. Patient characteristics were recorded and endotracheal tube displacement was determined.
Mean body mass index was 27.8 kg/m2 (range, 17.5–34.7 kg/m2) and mean neck circumference was 43.2 cm (range, 28–56 cm). The mean (± standard deviation) upward displacement of the endotracheal tube during neck extension was 7.17 ± 5.87 mm. Patients with a larger body mass index had a significantly greater amount of tube displacement (R2 = 0.67, p < 0.0001), as did patients with a smaller neck length (R2 = 0.48, p < 0.0001).
Neck extension results in upward displacement of the endotracheal tube. The amount of displacement is significantly higher in patients with a larger body mass index or shorter neck length. This has particular relevance for nerve monitoring in thyroidectomy.
This study assessed the use of pulse oximetry testing in children with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea in a hospital setting.
A retrospective review of patients who underwent pulse oximetry testing between April 2013 and October 2013 was performed. Primary outcome measures included positive pulse oximetry results, defined as a McGill oximetry score of 2–4.
Thirty-seven test results were usable for analysis: from 21 pre- and 16 post-operative tests. Only four patients had positive test results. There was a significant difference between pre- and post-operative quality of life outcome scores in the surgical group (p < 0.0001).
Pre-operative pulse oximetry should be used as a guide to help triage patients who require specialist paediatric services, such as a paediatric intensive care unit. The use of pulse oximetry, particularly in the post-operative setting, is unlikely to change patient management and can incur unnecessary financial costs to UK National Health Service Hospital Trusts.
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