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Materials can be endowed with unique properties by the integration of molecular motors. Molecular motors can have a biological origin or can be chemically synthesized and produce work from chemical energy or light. Their ability to access large internal or external reservoirs of energy enables a wide range of nonequilibrium behaviors, including the production of force, changes in shape, internal reorganization, and dynamic changes in mechanical properties—muscle tissue is one illustration of the possibilities. Current research efforts advance our experimental capabilities to create such “active matter” by using either biomolecular or synthetic motors, and also advance our theoretical understanding of these materials systems. Here, we introduce this exciting research field and highlight a few of the recent advances as well as open questions.
Mental health morbidity in post-conflict settings is high. Nevertheless, randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy on site are rare. Our aim was to integrate rigorous research procedures into a humanitarian programme and test the efficacy of resource activation (ROTATE) in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), co-morbid symptoms and impaired functioning in Cambodia.
A total of 86 out-patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to five sessions of ROTATE (n = 53) or a 5-week waiting-list control (WLC) condition (n = 33). Treatment was provided by six Cambodian psychologists who had received extensive training in ROTATE. Masked assessments were made before and after therapy.
PTSD remission rates according to the DSM-IV algorithm of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire were 95.9% in ROTATE and 24.1% in the WLC condition. Thus, patients receiving ROTATE had a significantly higher likelihood of PTSD remission (odds ratio 0.012, 95% confidence interval 0.002–0.071, p < 0.00001). Additionally, levels of anxiety, depression and impaired functioning were significantly reduced compared with the WLC condition (p < 0.00001, between-group effect sizes d = 2.41, 2.26 and 2.54, respectively). No harms were reported.
ROTATE was efficacious in treating Cambodian patients with high symptom levels of PTSD, emotional distress and impaired functioning. ROTATE is a brief, culturally adaptable intervention focusing on stabilization and strengthening resources rather than trauma confrontation. It can be taught to local professionals and paraprofessionals and enhance access to mental health care for patients in need.
The absolute time of growth of a floating tree-ring series is determined by computer, by first fitting a curve to the 14C ages of tree-ring dated wood and then by matching the 14C ages of the floating tree-ring series to that curve. The results obtained by this matching procedure are given here for five floating European oak chronologies for which 14C dates have been published previously by Suess (1978). Three of these five floating series have been linked together dendrochronologically. There now remain three floating series covering a 4000-year time span from 4820 BC to 830 BC. Their 14C dates, matched by computer to the bristlecone pine chronology, provide a possibility of obtaining precise ages of oak wood series from Neolithic sites in Switzerland and South Germany by dendrochronologically cross-dating with the calibrated master chronologies.
Multisomatoform disorder is characterised by severe and disabling bodily symptoms, and pain is one of the most common and impairing of these. Furthermore, these bodily symptoms cannot be explained by an underlying organic disorder. Patients with multisomatoform disorder are commonly found at all levels of healthcare and are typically difficult to treat for physicians as well as for mental health specialists.
To test whether brief psychodynamic interpersonal therapy (PIT) effectively improves the physical quality of life in patients who have had multisomatoform disorder for at least 2 years.
We recruited 211 patients (from six German academic out-patient centres) who met the criteria for multisomatoform disorder for a randomised, controlled, 12-week, parallel-group trial from 1 July 2006 to 1 January 2009 (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN23215121). We randomly assigned the patients to receive either 12 weekly sessions of PIT (n = 107) or three sessions of enhanced medical care (EMC, n = 104). The physical component summary of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was the pre-specified primary outcome at a 9-month follow-up.
Psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improved patients' physical quality of life at follow-up better than EMC (mean improvement in SF-36 score: PIT 5.3, EMC 2.2), with a small to medium between-group effect size (d = 0.42, 95% CI 0.15–0.69, P = 0.001). We also observed a significant improvement in somatisation but not in depression, health anxiety or healthcare utilisation.
This trial documents the long-term efficacy of brief PIT for improving the physical quality of life in patients with multiple, difficult-to-treat, medically unexplained symptoms.
In this paper, we are investigating the growth of a ZnSe based vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Undoped and p-type doped distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with reflectivities exceeding 99% have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using Zn(S)Se layers for the high refractive index material and ZnSe/MgS superlattices (SLs) for the low index material. An undoped monolithic VCSEL structure containing a ZnCdSSe quantum well (QW) emitting in the blue-green reaches a quality factor (Q-factor) of 100, which is the best value reported so far. Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the emission of the QW is effectively guided by the cavity resonance.
In this study comprising isolates from 2001 to 2003, resistance was considerably more widespread among Campylobacter jejuni from humans infected abroad than infected within Norway. The discrepancy was particularly notable for fluoroquinolone resistance (67·4% vs. 6·5%). This is probably a reflection of a low resistance prevalence in Norwegian broiler isolates (1·2% fluoroquinolone resistant).
Foix–Chavany–Marie syndrome (FCMS) is a distinct clinical picture of suprabulbar (pseudobulbar) palsy due to bilateral anterior opercular lesions. Symptoms include anarthria/severe dysarthria and loss of voluntary muscular functions of the face and tongue, and problems with mastication and swallowing with preservation of reflex and autonomic functions. FCMS may be congenital or acquired as well as persistent or intermittent. The aetiology is heterogeneous; vascular events in adulthood, nearly exclusively affecting adults who experience multiple subsequent strokes; CNS infections; bilateral dysgenesis of the perisylvian region; and epileptic disorders. Of the six cases reported here, three children had FCMS as the result of meningoencephalitis, two children had FCMS due to a congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, and one child had intermittent FCMS due to an atypical benign partial epilepsy with partial status epilepticus. The congenital dysgenetic type of FCMS and its functional epileptogenic variant share clinical and EEG features suggesting a common pathogenesis. Consequently, an increased vulnerability of the perisylvian region to adverse events in utero is discussed. In honour of Worster-Drought, who described the clinical entity in children 40 years ago, the term Worster-Drought syndrome is proposed for this unique disorder in children.
Most studies of the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease occur between gene variants and
biochemical or physiological variables known to be atherogenic. In many situations, however, the
gene products are not necessarily known. We studied 17 families (n = 122) with mutations in the low
density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene as a model in which to test formally for linkage directly
between an atherogenic genotype and ischemic heart disease (IHD) or aorto-coronary calcified
atherosclerosis. In each family one of three different mutations was found: the Trp66–Gly mutation,
the Trp23–Stop mutation, or a ten kilobase deletion removing exons 3–6 of the LDL receptor gene.
Genomic DNA was used to determine these mutations by either enzymatic cleavage assays or
Southern blotting. Aorto-coronary calcification was significantly associated with age and plasma
cholesterol. Sex, hypertension, BMI and smoking were not associated with aorto-coronary
calcification. Nonparametric analysis indicated significant linkage of the LDL receptor gene locus to
aortic (p < 0.00005) and to aorto-coronary calcified atherosclerosis (p < 0.00001). Assuming a
dominant mode of inheritance, significant linkage was detected for aortic (LOD = 3.89) and aorto-coronary calcified atherosclerosis (LOD = 4.10). We suggest that the atherogenicity of variations in
other genes could be assessed by a similar approach.
To investigate if there is a reservoir of Escherichia
coli O157 in Norwegian cattle, faecal
samples from 197 cattle herds were screened for E.
coli O157 by the use of immunomagnetic
separation (IMS) and PCR during the 1995 grazing season. Six
E. coli O157[ratio ]H-isolates were
detected in two herds, one isolate in one and five in the other.
The isolates carried the stx1,
stx2, and eae genes, and a 90 MDa
virulence plasmid. They were toxinogenic in a Vero cell
assay. From 57 other herds, 137 faecal samples were positive
for stx1 and/or stx2
genes detected by PCR run directly on IMS-isolated material.
Among these samples, stx2 were the
most widely distributed toxin encoding genes. No difference was
found among milking cows
and heifers in the rate of stx1 and/or
stx2 in positive samples.
The symmetry of heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion targets is investigated with a two-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code. The importance of the beam geometry is studied. The HIBALL design in its present form seems to inhibit a spherical implosion of the target. It is shown that the beam angle in the HIBALL geometry should be about 35 degrees.
As is well known, some paradoxes arise through inadequate analysis of the meanings of terms in a language, an adequate analysis showing that the paradoxes arise through a lack of separation of an object theory and a metatheory. Under such an adequate analysis in which parts of the metatheory are modelled in the object theory, the paradoxes give way to remarkable theorems establishing limitations of the object theory.
Such a modelling is often accomplished by a Gödel numbering. Here we shall use a somewhat different technique in axiomatic set theory, from which we shall reap a few results having the effect of comparing the strength of various axiom schema of comprehension for sets and classes (cf. the numbered results of §§5–7). Similar results were obtained by A. Mostowski  using Gödel numbering (cf. 5.3 and 7.3 below).
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