To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Rabies is one of the major public health problems in China, and the mortality rate of rabies remains the highest among all notifiable infectious diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccination rate and risk factors for human rabies in mainland China. The PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical and Wanfang databases were searched for articles on rabies vaccination status (published between 2007 and 2017). In total, 10 174 human rabies cases from 136 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Approximately 97.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 95.1–98.7%) of rabies cases occurred in rural areas and 72.6% (95% CI 70.0–75.1%) occurred in farmers. Overall, the vaccination rate in the reported human rabies cases was 15.4% (95% CI 13.7–17.4%). However, among vaccinated individuals, 85.5% (95% CI 79.8%–83.4%) did not complete the vaccination regimen. In a subgroup analysis, the PEP vaccination rate in the eastern region (18.8%, 95% CI 15.9–22.1%) was higher than that in the western region (13.3%, 95% CI 11.1–15.8%) and this rate decreased after 2007. Approximately 68.9% (95% CI 63.6–73.8%) of rabies cases experienced category-III exposures, but their PEP vaccination rate was 27.0% (95% CI 14.4–44.9%) and only 6.1% (95% CI 4.4–8.4%) received rabies immunoglobulin. Together, these results suggested that the PEP vaccination rate among human rabies cases was low in mainland China. Therefore, standardised treatment and vaccination programs of dog bites need to be further strengthened, particularly in rural areas.
In the theory research and engineering practice, more basic inflatable models are essential for the mechanical property analysis of inflatable structures. Firstly, this paper presents a model of the tapered inflatable cantilever beam based on Timoshenko's theory and analyzes its deformation under a concentrated force. Moreover, the following forces resulting from internal pressure and taper ratio are introduced into the equilibrium equations of the deformed configuration. Thus, the model is optimized compared to the existing one for a straight beam. To verify the effectiveness and the superiority of the established model, the theoretical method based on the model and FEM method are compared by adopting an example about the tapered beams. Finally, the theoretical method is applied in analyzing the influence of geometry and estimating a valid range of taper ratio. By the criterion of the same amount material area, the optimum taper ratio is obtained.
We have initiated an extensive atomic modeling effort applicable to X-ray line emission in high-temperature astrophysical plasmas. The emphasis of our program is on the detailed accounting of the mechanisms which populate excited states of highly ionized atoms over a wide range of electron temperatures and densities. As a first demonstration we have calculated spectra for the important L -shell ions Fe XVI-XIX in a complete collisional-radiative model under conditions appropriate to solar coronal plasmas. Using methods presented here, we have synthesized the X-ray spectra of solar flares and active regions over the wavelength interval 13 – 18 Ǡ. The atomic model, which includes 705 atomic energy levels, is the largest and most detailed of its kind. In this introductory paper, we discuss the effects of dielectronic recombination on the spectrum of Fe XVII and present a new technique whereby the 3s lines can be used as a diagnostic of the electron temperature. Also included are new values for the rate of resonance excitation of the n=3 Fe XVII excited states. These rates are lower than those previously obtained and suggest that resonance excitation does not contribute significantly to the population kinetics. Finally, we present a direct comparison of our a calculated model spectrum with data from a solar flare.
Nitrogen (N) supply is essential for achieving high grain yield in maize production, but excessive N application can lead to lodging risks and potential yield loss. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of ethephon application under different N fertilizer rates in reducing maize lodging. Field experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of ethephon (0 and 180 g/ha) and N rate (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg N/ha) on the morphological and chemical characteristics of basal internode and yield across two summer maize-growing seasons (2011/12) in Wuqiao of the North China Plain. Findings showed that ethephon significantly increased the maximum diameter of the 7th to 14th internodes, and decreased the internode lengths, which led to a decrease in plant and ear heights under different N rates. Significant ethephon × N interaction effects were observed on the diameter and length of internode, dry weight per unit internode length and breaking resistance. Ethephon significantly increased N, cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the basal internode, but cellulose and hemicellulose contents decreased as the rate of N application increased. Internode diameter, dry weight per unit internode length, and N content of the basal internode were significantly positively correlated with breaking resistance. Ethephon significantly increased grain yield and harvest index in 2011, but not in 2012. Grain yield and above-ground biomass were increased with increasing N application in both growing seasons, showing linear and quadratic responses. These results suggested that ethephon could increase stalk strength by improving the morphological and chemical characteristics of the basal internode, and maintain high yield and biomass under high N rates.
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is known to be endemic in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China; however, there is relatively little data from hospital records or community prevalence studies, and the situation regarding occurrence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is unclear. Here we review the available reports about human echinococcosis in the seven prefectures of TAR. In addition, two pilot studies by mass screening using ultrasound (with serology) were undertaken (2006/7) in Dangxiong County of Lhasa Prefecture (north central TAR) and Dingqing County of Changdu Prefecture (eastern TAR). In Dangxiong County a prevalence of 9.9% (55/557) for human CE was obtained but no human AE cases were detected. By contrast, in Dingqing County (N= 232 persons screened), 11 CE cases (4.7%) and 12 AE cases (5.2%) (including one mixed CE and AE case) were diagnosed by ultrasound. Hospital records and published reports indicated that CE cases were recorded in all of seven prefectures in Tibet Autonomous Region, and AE cases in four prefectures. Incidence rates of human CE were estimated to range from 1.9 to 155 per 100,000 across the seven prefectures of TAR, with a regional incidence of 45.1 per 100,000. Incidence of AE was estimated to be between 0.6 and 2.8 cases per 100,000. Overall for TAR, human AE prevalence appeared relatively low; however, the pilot mass screening in Dingqing in eastern TAR indicated that human AE disease is a potential public health problem, possibly similar to that already well described in Tibetan communities bordering TAR in north-west Sichuan and south-west Qinghai provinces.
Desorption of gold ions from liver tissue sections, in which intravenously injected gold nanorods were accumulated, were studied to evaluate properties of gold nanorods as a "mass-tag". Gold ions were sensitively detected by using a conventional MALDI-MS machine. When 50-µm-thick blank sections without gold nanorods were placed on or beneath a sample section, desorption of gold ions was almost suppressed. It was found that the escape depth of gold ions from liver tissue sections was less than 50 µm. It was found that we do not have to take account of the escape depth of gold ions if a section were sliced into 10-20 µm thickness.
We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4–100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0–89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.
The synthesis of biocompatible noble metal nanoparticles dispersible in a wide range of biological media with control of polycrystalinity and nanogeometry, pH sensitivity and salt tolerance has been a challenging requirements. The role of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-APTMS) and organic reducing reagents for real time synthesis of amphilic noble metal nanoparticles meeting these requirements are demonstrated justifying the following; (1) 3-APTMS capped noble metal ions are converted into respective metal nanoparticles in the presence of one of organic reducing agents i.e., cyclohexanone, tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide (THF-HPO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, t-buty dimethyl keotone, 3-Glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane (3-GPTMS); (2) 3-APTMS acts as micelle, promotes the interaction of metal ions with organic reducing agent, precisely controls the size of metal nanoparticles, pH sensititvity and salt tolerance and also provides a suitable medium for nanoparticles suspension, (3) the use of suitable organic reagent precisely controls the polarity of as made noble metal nanoparticles allowing specific biological interactions, and (4) 3-APTMS significantly increases the stability and controls the pH sensitivity and salt tolerance of metal nanoparticles. The as synthesized nanomaterials show potential viability in biomedical applications from many angles i.e. (a) as potential bioelectrocatalyst, (b) selective interaction with active proteins and cellular components, and (c) peroxidase mimetic.
Computed tomography (CT) is an important tool in clinical diagnostic imaging enabling three-dimensional anatomic imaging at high spatial resolution with short scan times. However, X-ray attenuation differences in physiological fluids and soft tissues are relatively small, requiring the use of contrast agents to achieve sufficient imaging contrast. Recent advances in energy-sensitive X-ray detectors have made spectral (color) CT commercially feasible by unmixing the energy-dependent attenuation profile of different materials and will potentially enable molecular imaging in CT. In order to leverage these capabilities for diagnostic imaging, we are developing a spectral library of nanoparticle contrast agents with K-shell absorption edges spaced at least 10 keV apart. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of spectral CT to simultaneously detect up to three different contrast agents and unmixed their signals to create color images. Gadolinium oxide (Gd), hafnium oxide (Hf) and gold (Au) were chosen due to exhibiting K-edges spaced 10-20 keV apart. Core-shell nanoparticles of each composition were synthesized by various methods to have a core diameter of 15-20 nm and were coated with a silica shell at least 2-4 nm in thickness to create a common platform for surface functionalization. The contrast agents were imaged in a soft tissue equivalent phantom using source-side method for spectral CT imaging. The source-side approach utilized monochromatic synchrotron radiation at the Argonne National Laboratory which, while not clinically applicable, served as a gold standard due to providing the highest spectral resolution. The nanoparticles designed for this study have broad applications in biomedical imaging due to their modular assembly, potential for enabling multi-modal detection, and surface functionalization with biomolecules (e.g., antibodies, peptides or enzymes) for active targeting.
A stratospheric airship flies at a working altitude of 20km when it takes off from the ground. During ascent and descent, the wind field and thermal environment are highly complex. The thermal environment affects altitude, whereas wind influences the horizontal position of the airship. At a low altitude, this horizontal position cannot be controlled by thrusts given the low thrust-to-weight ratio, especially under a large wind field. However, it may be controlled indirectly by the pitch angle during ascent and descent with a certain vertical velocity. This study therefore proposes ascending and descending schemes for a stratospheric airship based on the thermal model. In this model, altitude is determined by the net lift/weight, whereas the horizontal position is controlled by the thrust and pitch. The pitch angle is determined by ballonets and an elevator. To allocate pitch control between the ballonets and the elevator under different airspeeds, pseudo-inverse dynamics of varied weight are introduced. In horizontal position control, the method of chain allocation is then applied between a pitch angle and vectored thrust to control the position of a stratospheric airship during ascent/descent.
This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0–0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0–0.7% in ITS1 and 0–1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0–65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3–64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods – Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony – revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes.
The present study examined sequence variability in two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) among Oesophagostomum asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1), nad1 (pnad1) genes and the ITS (ITS1+5.8S rDNA+ITS2) rDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) separately from adult O. asperum individuals and the representative amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of pcox1, pnad1 and ITS rDNA were 366 bp, 681 bp and 785 bp, respectively. The A+T contents of gene sequences were 71.5–72% for pcox1, 73.7–74.2% for pnad1 and 58–58.8% for ITS rDNA. Intra-specific sequence variations within O. asperum were 0–1.6% for pcox1, 0–1.9% for pnad1 and 0–1.7% for ITS rDNA, while inter-specific sequence differences among members of the genus Oesophagostomum were significantly higher, being 11.1–12.5%, 13.3–17.7% and 8.5–18.6% for pcox1, pnad1 and ITS rDNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses using combined sequences of pcox1 and pnad1, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony), revealed distinct groups with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of intra-specific variation in mtDNA and rDNA sequences among O. asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China, and have implications for studying molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. asperum.
To determine risk factors for sporadic Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis, we conducted a population-based case-control study in sentinel hospital surveillance areas of Shanghai and Jiangsu province, China. Seventy-one patients with diarrhoea and confirmed V. parahaemolyticus infections were enrolled, and they were matched with 142 controls for gender, age and residential area. From the multivariable analysis, V. parahaemolyticus infections were associated with antibiotics taken during the 4 weeks prior to illness [odds ratio (OR) 8·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2–56·4)], frequent eating out (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·1–10·1), and shellfish consumption (OR 3·2, 95% CI 1·0–9·9), with population-attributable fractions of 0·09, 0·25, and 0·14, respectively. Protective factors included keeping the aquatic products refrigerated (OR 0·4, 95% CI 0·1–0·9) and pork consumption (OR 0·2, 95% CI 0·1–0·8). Further study of the association of V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis with prior antibiotic use and shellfish consumption is needed.
Convergent studies have highlighted the dysfunction of the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only a few studies have investigated the functional connectivity between brain regions in PTSD patients during the resting state, which may improve our understanding of the neuropathophysiology of PTSD. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of whole-brain functional connectivity in treatment-naive PTSD patients without co-morbid conditions who experienced the 8.0-magnitude earthquake in the Sichuan province of China.
A total of 72 PTSD patients and 86 trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls participated in the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study. All these subjects were recruited from the disaster zone of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Functional connectivities between 90 paired brain regions in PTSD patients were compared with those in trauma-exposed non-PTSD controls. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis was performed between significantly abnormal connectivities in PTSD patients and their clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) scores.
Compared with non-PTSD controls, PTSD patients showed weaker positive connectivities between the middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and rectus, as well as between the inferior orbitofrontal cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, PTSD patients showed stronger negative connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the insula. The CAPS scores in PTSD patients correlated negatively with the connectivity between the amygdala and the mPFC.
PTSD patients showed abnormalities in whole-brain functional connectivity, primarily affecting the connectivities between the mPFC and limbic system, and connectivity between the PCC and insula.