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The consensus within psychiatry is that patients' religion/spirituality are legitimate topics in assessment and treatment. Religion/spirituality can help people cope with mental illness, but their use as therapeutic tools is controversial. Despite the publication of position statements by national and international psychiatric organisations, there is no clarity over therapeutic boundaries.
Declaration of interest
R.P. and R.H. are atheists. C.C.H.C. is an ordained Anglican and a past Chair of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Spirituality and Psychiatry Special Interest Group. He writes here in a personal capacity.
Understanding control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with multiple herbicide sites of action, including synthetic auxins, is crucial for growers to minimize GR Palmer amaranth interference with crops. Field studies in 2013 and 2014 and a greenhouse study in 2014 were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate POST control of GR Palmer amaranth with 2,4-D alone and in mixtures with glyphosate and/or glufosinate. In the greenhouse study, control of 5- and 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth was 87% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ae ha−1. Dry weight reduction of GR Palmer amaranth was ≥81% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ha−1. In field studies, mixtures of glufosinate at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and 2,4-D at 0.56 or 1.12 kg ae ha−1 controlled 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth 87% at 28 d after treatment (DAT). Averaged across glyphosate treatments, glufosinate applied alone applied to 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth reduced dry weight at 28 DAT to 20 g m−2 from 82 g m−2 and was comparable with that following 2,4-D applied alone at 1.12 kg ae ha−1 and mixtures of glufosinate plus 2,4-D at 0.56 and 1.12 kg ae ha−1. Mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate provided ≥92% control of 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth at 28 DAT. When applied to 15- to 20-cm plants, mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate reduced GR Palmer amaranth density to ≤5 plants m−2 compared with 65 plants m−2 where no 2,4-D or glufosinate was applied. Glufosinate and 2,4-D are viable control options for 5- to 10-cm or 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth. However, 2,4-D did not improve GR Palmer amaranth control when added to any herbicide mixture except glyphosate and glufosinate applied to 15- to 20-cm plants at the 28 DAT evaluation.
Febrile seizure (FS) in children is a common complication of infections with respiratory viruses and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We conducted a retrospective ecological time-series analysis to determine the temporal relationship between hospital attendances for FS and HFMD or respiratory virus infections. Epilepsy attendance was used as a control. Data from 2004 to 2012 FS and epilepsy hospital attendance, HFMD notifications to the Ministry of Health and from laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections among KK Women's and Children's Hospital inpatients were used. A multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between FS and the virus time series. Relative risks of FS by age were calculated using Bayesian statistical methods. Paediatric accident and emergency (A&E) attendances for FS were found to be associated with influenza A (extra 0.47 FS per influenza A case), B (extra 0.32 per influenza B case) and parainfluenza 3 (extra 0.35 per parainfluenza type 3 case). However, other viruses were not significantly associated with FS. None of the viruses were associated with epileptic seizure attendance. Influenza A, B and parainfluenza 3 viruses contributed to the burden of FS resulting in A&E attendance. Children at risk of FS should be advised to receive seasonal influenza vaccination.
Artificial rearing of young animals represents a challenge in modern ruminant production systems. This work aims to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of the type of rearing on the animal’s health, growth, feed utilization and carcass performance. A total of 24 pregnant ewes carrying triplets were used. Within each triplet set, lambs were randomly allocated to one experimental treatment: natural rearing on the ewe (NN); ewe colostrum for 24 h followed by artificial rearing with milk replacer (NA) and 50 g of colostrum alternative supplementation followed by artificial rearing (AA). Milk replacer, ryegrass hay and creep feed were offered ad libitum, and each experimental group was kept in independent pens until weaning at 45 days of age. After weaning all lambs were placed together on the same pasture for fattening for 4 months. Blood samples were taken at 24 h after birth, at weaning and at the end of the fattening period (23 weeks). Results showed that no failure in the passive immune transfer was detected across treatments. Although artificially reared lambs at weaning had lower plasma levels of β-hydroxy-butyrate (−62%), high-density lipoproteins (−13%) and amylase (−25%), and higher levels of low-density lipoproteins (+38%) and alkaline phosphatase (+30%), these differences disappeared during the fattening period. Only the greater levels of calcium and the lower levels of haemoglobin and white blood cells detected at weaning in artificially reared lambs (+7.2%, −2.8% and −17.8%) persisted by the end of the fattening period (+4.3%, −3.3% and −9.5%, respectively). Minor diarrheal events from weeks 2 to 5 were recorded with artificial rearing, leading to lower growth rates during the 1st month. However, these artificially reared lambs caught up towards the end of the milk feeding period and reached similar weaning weights to NN lambs. During the fattening period NN lambs had a greater growth rate (+16%) possibly as a result of their greater early rumen development, which allowed a higher feed digestibility during the fattening period in comparison to NA lambs (+5.9%). As a result, NN lambs had heavier final BWs (+7.0%), but tended to have lower dressing percentage (−5.7%) than artificially reared lambs, thus no differences were noted in either carcass weight or in carcass conformation across treatments. In conclusion, the use of a colostrum alternative and milk replacer facilitated the successful rearing of lambs, reaching similar productive parameters; however, special care must be taken to maximize the rumen development before weaning.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Haemogregarines (Apicomplexa: Adeleiorina) are a diverse group of haemoparasites reported from almost all vertebrate classes. The most commonly recorded haemogregarines to parasitize anurans are species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908. To date 16 Hepatozoon species have been described from anurans in Africa, with only a single species, Hepatozoon hyperolli (Hoare, 1932), infecting a member of the Hyperoliidae. Furthermore, only two Hepatozoon species are known from South African anurans, namely Hepatozoon theileri (Laveran, 1905) and Hepatozoon ixoxo Netherlands, Cook and Smit, 2014, from Amietia delalandii (syn. Amietia quecketti) and three Sclerophrys species, respectively. Blood samples were collected from a total of 225 individuals representing nine hyperoliid species from several localities throughout northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Twenty frogs from three species were found positive for haemogregarines, namely Afrixalus fornasinii (6/14), Hyperolius argus (2/39), and Hyperolius marmoratus (12/74). Based on morphological characteristics, morphometrics and molecular findings three new haemogregarine species, Hepatozoon involucrum Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp., Hepatozoon tenuis Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp. and Hepatozoon thori Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp., are described from hyperoliid hosts. Furthermore, molecular analyses show anuran Hepatozoon species to be a separate monophyletic group, with species isolated from African hosts forming a monophyletic clade within this cluster.
In this paper, first results comparing modified Longin and ninhydrin collagen extraction methodologies are presented. The goal of this study is to investigate the bones of several species with different ages, preservation conditions, and collagen contents to determine the most suitable preparation method. Different types of samples are used such as VIRI samples, previously dated bones, and background samples. Each bone has undergone elemental analysis, infrared analysis, and 14C measurement. The results are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each preparation method are discussed. In general, results obtained by the two methods are in accordance with the consensus value for 2σ uncertainty. For VIRI I and a mammoth bone, the ninhydrin preparation gives, respectively, 8450±70 BP and 14,870±60 BP whereas the modified Longin process gives 8365±45 BP and 14,750±100 BP in agreement with the expected values. From the experimental point of view, the modified Longin process is easier to implement than the ninhydrin protocol. From this approach, we can conclude that the modified Longin process could be preferred in most cases and particularly when the amount of bone is small and the sample is not too contaminated.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
To characterize contacts in general wards, a prospective survey of healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and visitors was conducted using self-reported diary, direct observation and telephone interviews. Nurses, doctors and assorted HCWs reported a median of 14, 18 and 15 contact persons over one work shift, respectively. Within 1 h, we observed 3·5 episodes with 25·6 min of cumulative contact time for nurses, 2·9 episodes and 22·1 min for doctors and 5·0 episodes with 44·3 min for assorted-HCWs. In interactions with patients, nurses had multiple brief episodes of contact; doctors had fewer episodes and less cumulative contact time; assorted-HCWs had fewer contact episodes of longer durations (than for nurses and doctors). Assortative mixing occurred amongst HCWs: those of the same HCW type were the next most frequent class of contact after patients. Over 24-h, patients contacted 14 persons with 23 episodes and 314·5 min of contact time. Patient-to-patient contact episodes were rare, but a maximum of five were documented from one patient participant. 22·9% of visitors reported contact with patients other than the one they visited. Our study revealed differences in the characteristics of contacts among different HCW types and potential transmission routes from patients to others within the ward environment.
The Macho Collaboration uses a dedicated 1.27-m telescope (The Great Melbourne Telescope) at Mount Stromlo to make photometric measurements of tens of millions of stars per night searching for the gravitational microlensing signature of MACHOs in the halo and disk of the Milky Way. A prime focus corrector and dichroic beamsplitter provide red (6300–7800 å) and blue (4500–6300 å) foci with one degree fields. A two by two mosaic of 2048 × 2048 pixel CCDs in each focal plane provides simultaneous images of 0.5 square degrees. By August of 1994, more than 20,000, 32 megapixel images will have been collected of fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud and the bulge of the Milky Way. We have implemented an online analysis system which produces photometric reductions of a night's data (five Gbyte of images) within 24 hours. This system allows us to identify and follow interesting events in real-time. In this search, we have identified more than 60,000 variable stars, and a preliminary analysis of their types and distribution will be presented. Microlensing events toward the LMC and the bulge have been discovered and detection efficiencies are being calculated to constrain the MACHO content of the Milky Way's halo.
The Macho Collaboration uses a dedicated 1.27-m telescope (The Great Melbourne Telescope) at Mount Stromlo to make photometric measurements of tens of millions of stars per night searching for the gravitational microlensing signature of MACHOs in the halo and disk of the Milky Way. A prime focus corrector and dichroic beamsplitter provide red (6300–7800 å) and blue (4500–6300 å) foci with one degree fields. A two by two mosaic of 2048 × 2048 pixel CCDs in each focal plane provides simultaneous images of 0.5 square degrees. By August of 1994, more than 20,000, 32 Megapixel images will have been collected of fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud and the bulge of the Milky Way. We have implemented an online analysis system which produces photometric reductions of a night's data (five Gbyte of images) within 24 hours. This system allows us to identify and follow interesting events in real-time. In this search, we have identified more than 60,000 variable stars, and a preliminary analysis of their types and distribution will be presented. Microlensing events toward the LMC and the bulge have been discovered and detection efficiencies are being calculated to constrain the MACHO content of the Milky Way's halo.
Aging is accompanied by cognitive decline that is escalated in older adults reporting extreme sleep duration. Social relationships can influence health outcomes and thus may qualify the association between sleep duration and cognitive function. The present study examines the moderating effects of marital status, household size, and social network with friends and relatives on the sleep–cognition association among older adults.
Data (N = 4,169) came from the Social Isolation, Health, and Lifestyles Survey, a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling older Singaporeans (≥ 60 years). Sleep duration and social relationships were self-reported. Cognitive function was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire.
Regression analysis revealed that the inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive function was less profound among older adults who were married (vs. unmarried) and those who had stronger (vs. weaker) social networks. In contrast, it was more prominent among individuals who had more (vs. fewer) household members.
Being married and having stronger social networks may buffer against the negative cognitive impact of extreme sleep duration. But larger household size might imply more stress for older persons, and therefore strengthen the sleep duration–cognitive function association. We discuss the potential biological underpinnings and the policy implications of the findings. Although our findings are based on a large sample, replication studies using objective measures of sleep duration and other cognitive measures are needed.
Dementia is a neurodegenerative syndrome that interferes with multiple aspects of life, including cognition, daily functioning, and behavior. Despite the large heterogeneity in symptom development, these three domains are seldom studied simultaneously. This study investigates how trajectories of these domains are interrelated within individuals over time, and how they in turn are related to dementia severity and quality of life (QoL).
We used data from a longitudinal clinical cohort study, including 331 dementia patients. Cognitive status was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, daily functioning was measured with the disability assessment for dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) were scored using the neuropsychiatric inventory. We investigated the relationships in the time course of the various dementia domains using random effects multilevel models and parallel-process growth models.
Changes in cognition and daily functioning were highly correlated over time (r = 0.85, p < 0.01), as were changes in NPS and functioning (r = −0.60, p < 0.01), while changes in cognition and NPS were not (r = −0.20, p = 0.06). All three domains were strongly associated with dementia severity over time (p < 0.01). Decreased functioning and increased NPS were both associated with decreased QoL (β = 2.97, p < 0.01 and β = −2.41, p < 0.01, respectively), while cognition was not (β = 0.01, p = 0.93).
This study demonstrates the heterogeneity of dementia progression between individuals and between different dementia domains within individuals. To improve our understanding of dementia progression, future research should embrace a broader perspective encompassing multiple outcome measures along with the patient's profile, including neurological factors as well as physical, social, and psychiatric health.
This paper discusses some modeling results that indicate how the atmospheric response to the topography of the continental ice of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) may be related to the cold North Atlantic Ocean of that time. Broccoli and Manabe (1987) used a three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of the atmosphere coupled with a fixed-depth, static ocean mixed-layer model with ice-age boundary conditions to investigate the individual influences of the CLIMAP ice sheets, snow-free land albedos, and reduced atmospheric CO2 concentrations. They found that the ice sheets are the most influential of the ice-age boundary conditions in modifying the northern hemisphere climate, and that the presence of continental ice sheets alone leads to cooling over the North Atlantic Ocean.
One approach for extending these GCM results is to consider the stationary waves generated by the ice sheets. Cook and Held (1988) showed that a linearized, steady-state, primitive equation model can give a reasonable simulation of the GCM’s stationary waves forced by the Laurentide ice sheet. The linear model analysis suggests that the mechanical effect of the changed slope of the surface, and not changes in the diabatic heating (e.g. the high surface albedos) or time-dependent transports that necessarily accompany the ice sheet in the GCM, is largely responsible for the ice sheet’s influence. To obtain the ice-age stationary-wave simulation, the linear model must be linearized about the zonal mean fields from the GCM’s ice-age climate. This is the case because the proximity of the cold polar air to the region of adiabatic heating on the downslope of the Laurentide ice sheet is an important factor in determining the stationary waves. During the ice age, cold air can be transported southward to balance this downslope heating by small perturbations in the meridional wind, consistent with linear theory. Since the meridional temperature gradient is more closely related to the surface albedo (ice extent) than to the ice volume, this suggests a mechanism by which changes in the stationary waves and, therefore, their cooling influence at low levels over the North Atlantic Ocean, can occur on time scales faster than those associated with large changes in continental ice volume.
The Caltech imaging γ-ray telescope was launched by balloon from Alice Springs, NT, Australia and performed observations of the galactic center during the period 12.62 to 13.00 April 1988 UT. The first coded-aperture images of the galactic center region at energies above 30 keV show a single strong γ-ray source which is located 0.7±0.1° from the galactic nucleus and is tentatively identified as 1E1740.7-2942. If the source is at the distance of the galactic center, it is one of the most luminous objects in the galaxy at energies from 35 to 200 keV.
A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for assessing the potential risk of dengue virus emergence and distribution in Western Australia (WA) is presented and used to identify possible hotspots of dengue outbreaks in summer and winter. The model assesses the probabilities of two kinds of events which must take place before an outbreak can occur: (1) introduction of the virus and mosquito vectors to places where human population densities are high; and (2) vector population growth rates as influenced by climatic factors. The results showed that if either Aedes aegypti or Ae. albopictus were to become established in WA, three centres in the northern part of the State (Kununurra, Fitzroy Crossing, Broome) would be at particular risk of experiencing an outbreak. The model can also be readily extended to predict the risk of introduction of other viruses carried by Aedes mosquitoes, such as yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses.
This study tested whether accurate dating by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon wiggle-matching of short tree-ring series (~30 annual rings) in the Medieval period could be achieved. Scientific dating plays a central role in the conservation of historic buildings in England. Precise dating helps assess the significance of particular buildings or elements of their fabric, thus allowing us to make informed decisions about their repair and protection. Consequently, considerable weight, both financial and legal, can be attached to the precision and accuracy of this dating. Dendrochronology is the method of choice, but in a proportion of cases this is unable to provide calendar dates. Hence, we would like to be able to use 14C wiggle-matching to provide a comparable level of precision and reliability, particularly on shorter tree-ring sequences (~30 annual growth rings) that up until now would not routinely be sampled. We present the results of AMS wiggle-matching five oak tree-ring sequences, spanning the period covered by the vast majority of surviving Medieval buildings in England (about AD 1180–1540) when currently we have only decadal and bidecadal calibration data.
‘Punch-card equipment is becoming more and more a convenient and useful tool of the actuary. For this reason, the study of, this equipment and its flexibility should and will occupy a larger place in the training of actuarial students in the future.’
R. J. WALKER, F.A.S.
The actuary employed in life office work is very closely concerned with the methods by which the valuation and other records of a life office are built up. It is surprising, therefore, that there are very few references in the pages of the Journal of the Institute to the use of punched-card equipment for life office work. The use of the equipment for calculations of interest to the actuary, such as the construction of tables, has also been largely ignored. Actuaries employed in work outside life oflices so often rely on punched-card equipment for their statistical data that the authors feel that no apology is needed to either class of actuary for presenting a paper on the subject. Punchedcard equipment has received much more attention in the Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America, most recent volumes containing a paper or note on its application.