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Hydrogen peroxide is used to extract uranium by the in situ leaching of sandstone ore deposits containing uraninite (UO2). Since FeS2 minerals, marcasite and pyrite, also occur in these deposits and they consume hydrogen peroxide in their oxidation, it is important to determine their concentration.
A quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was therefore developed in order to monitor the concentration of marcasite and pyrite in sandstone ores.
Some centres favour early intervention for ureteral colic while others prefer trial of spontaneous passage, and relative outcomes are poorly described. Calgary and Vancouver have similar populations and physician expertise, but differing approaches to ureteral colic. We studied 60-day hospitalization and intervention rates for patients having a first emergency department (ED) visit for ureteral colic in these diverse systems.
We used administrative data and structured chart review to study all Vancouver and Calgary patients with an index visit for ureteral colic during 2014. Patient demographics, arrival characteristics and triage category were captured from ED information systems, while ED visits and admissions were captured from linked regional hospital databases. Laboratory results were obtained from electronic health records and stone characteristics were abstracted from diagnostic imaging reports. Our primary outcome was hospitalization or urological intervention from 0 to 60 days. Secondary outcomes included ED revisits, readmissions and rescue interventions. Time to event analysis was conducted and Cox Proportional Hazards modelling was performed to adjust for covariate imbalance.
We studied 3283 patients with CT-defined stones. Patient and stone characteristics were similar for the cities. Hospitalization or intervention occurred in 60.9% of Calgary patients and 31.3% of Vancouver patients (p<0.001). Calgary patients had higher index intervention rates (52.1% v. 7.5%), and experienced more ED revisits and hospital readmissions during follow-up. The data suggest that outcome events were associated with overtreatment of small stones in one city and undertreatment of large stones in the other.
An early interventional approach was associated with higher ED revisit, hospitalization and intervention rates. If these events are markers of patient disability, then a less interventional approach to small stones and earlier definitive management of large stones may reduce system utilization and improve outcomes for patients with acute ureteral colic.
While state legislative rollbacks of public-sector workers’ collective bargaining rights in Wisconsin and other US states in 2011 appeared to signal an unprecedented wave of hostility toward the public sector, such episodes have a long history. Drawing on recent work on “governance repertoires,” this article compares antistate initiatives in Wisconsin in 2011 to two previous periods of conflict over the size and shape of government: the 1930s and the 1970s. We find that while small government advocates in all three periods used similar language and emphasized comparable themes, the outcomes of their advocacy were different due to the distinct historical moments in which they unfolded and the way local initiatives were linked to political projects at the national level. We explore the relationship of local versions of small government activism to their national-level counterparts in each period to show how national-level movements and the ideological, social, and material resources they provided shaped governance repertoires in Wisconsin. We argue that the three moments of conflict over the size of government are deeply intertwined with the prehistory, emergence, and rise to dominance of neoliberal political rationality and can provide insight into how that new “governance repertoire” was experienced and built at the local level.
Background: Perinatal stroke is the most common cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Post-stroke plasticity is well studied in adults, but mechanisms in children are poorly understood. To better understand the relationship between functional connectivity and disability, we used rsfMRI to compare connectivity with sensorimotor dysfunction. Methods: Subjects with periventricular venous infarction were compared to controls. Resting-state BOLD signal was acquired on 3T MRI and analyzed using SPM12. Functional connectivity was computed between S1 and M1 of the left/non-lesioned and right/ lesioned hemisphere. Primary outcome was connectivity expressed as a Pearson correlation coefficient. Motor function was measured using the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), and Melbourne Assessment (MA). Proprioceptive function was measured using a robotic position matching task (VarXY). Results: Subjects included 17 PVI and 21 controls. AHA and MA in patients were negatively correlated with connectivity (increased connectivity=poorer performance). Correlations between AHA and connectivity between non-lesioned M1 to bilateral S1s were significant. VarXY in PVI was inversely correlated with connectivity (increased connectivity=improved performance), significantly between non-lesioned S1 and bilateral M1s. Control VarXY was positively correlated with connectivity between non-dominant S1 to bilateral M1s. Conclusions: We demonstrated significant correlations between connectivity and motor/sensory function in PVI patients. Greater insight into understanding reorganization of brain networks following perinatal stroke may facilitate personalized rehabilitation.
The present report used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation to investigate the factor structure and childhood abuse and/or neglect related antecedents of adults’ attachment states of mind in a high-risk sample. Adult Attachment Interviews (AAIs) were collected when participants were age 26 years (N = 164) and Current Relationship Interviews (CRIs) were collected from participants (N = 116) and their romantic partners when target participants were between ages 20 and 28 years (M = 25.3 years). For both the AAI and the CRI, exploratory factor analyses revealed that (a) attachment state of mind scales loaded on two weakly correlated dimensions reflecting dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) ratings of unresolved discourse loaded on the same factor as indicators of preoccupied states of mind. Experiencing any subtype of abuse and/or neglect, especially during multiple developmental periods, and experiencing multiple subtypes of abuse and/or neglect during childhood were associated with risk for preoccupied (but not dismissing) AAI states of mind regarding childhood relationships with caregivers. Analyses focused on the particular subtypes, and perpetrators indicated that the predictive significance of childhood abuse/neglect for adult's AAI preoccupied states of mind was specific to experiences of abuse (but not neglect) perpetrated by primary caregivers. In addition, experiencing chronic or multiple subtypes of childhood abuse and/or neglect increased risk for dismissing (but not preoccupied) CRI states of mind regarding adult romantic partners.
As discussed in the focal article, numerous research studies have supported the existence of automatic or implicit racial bias (Ruggs et al., 2016). In this commentary, we argue that examining implicit bias through the perspective of the motivation and opportunity as determinants (MODE) model (see Fazio & Olson, 2014, for a review) offers a framework for industrial–organizational (I-O) psychologists to design and implement strategies that reduce the number of violent interactions between police and communities. The MODE model has been applied to areas such as interpersonal relationships (McNulty, Olson, Meltzer, & Shaffer, 2013), effective treatment of mental disorders (Vasey, Harbaugh, Buffington, Jones, & Fazio, 2012), and crafting of media messages (Ewoldsen, Rhodes, & Fazio, 2015), as well as racial prejudice (Olson & Fazio, 2004). Below, we elaborate on how the I-O-related strategies and interventions described in the focal article can be captured by the components of the MODE model and highlight which interventions may be most efficacious in reducing discriminatory police officer behavior.
Background: Persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS) have been linked to increased cortical network activation and decreased cerebrovascular reactivity. Decreased cerebral perfusion could help explain PCS and may be a biomarker to track recovery. Methods: Children (ages 8 to 18 years) symptomatic with PCS at one month post-injury were studied. Children who recovered following a mTBI (asymptomatic group) and healthy children acted as controls. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI was used to quantify cerebral blood flow (CBF). All subjects were imaged at approximately 40 days post-injury. Symptomatic group underwent repeat neuroimaging 4-5 weeks later. Results: Seventy-two participants (14.1 years; 95% CIs: 13.5, 14.8) underwent neuroimaging at 40 days post-injury. Global CBF was significantly higher in the symptomatic group compared to healthy controls, and lower in the asymptomatic group (F(2,57) 9.734 p<0.001). Symptomatic children had increased CBF in the frontal and occipital regions, and asymptomatic children had decreased CBF in the temporal regions compared to healthy controls. CBF decreased in symptomatic children over time. CBF was a predictor of cognition (R2=0.235;p=0.001). Conclusions: Cerebral perfusion is altered in children with mTBI and is associated with recovery trajectory. Asymptomatic children had decreased CBF suggesting cerebral recovery is ongoing. Further longitudinal studies are required to determine if these perfusion patterns continue to change over time.
We describe the expected distribution of intensity for a scintillating source of finite size observed through a scattering medium, including systematic and instrumental effects. We describe measurements of the size of the Vela pulsar, using this technique.
It is easy to lament the paucity of source materials, whether for certain historical periods, specific topics, or the lives of individuals. The cry is usually for more, more, whether of documents, monographs, or money, and the inordinate desires of man are frequently stimulated but rarely satisfied. Perhaps we should occasionally accentuate the positive, rejoice in what we have, and give silent thanks for the labours and foresights of those who have gone before. If we consider the Elizabethan period, we are blessed with the State Papers, Domestic, Foreign, Venetian, and Spanish. There are 45 volumes of the Acts of the Privy Council of England for the period 1542-1630, of which 26 relate to the Elizabethan period. We have the 27 volumes of John Strype, the 55 volumes of the Parker Society, the various works of the Alcuin Club Collections and the Canterbury and York Society. The members of the Catholic Record Society have provided us with 57 volumes of materials, and A. F. Allison and David Rogers have edited Biographical Studies and Recusant History since 1951.
We introduce a novel approach to interpreting the well-known spatial correlation of gas densities with on-going star formation. Treated as a closed-loop process involving two physically distinct phases the data can be subdivided into regions that are active and those that are quiescent. The active regions can be distinguished by the presence of high-mass, short-lived, but recently-formed OB stars; the quiescent regions are marked by an absence of these stars and they are considered to be recovering from the last star-formation event and are re-collapsing. The relative (areal) frequencies of those two phases are directly proportional to the relative timescales. For four Local Group galaxies, NGC 6822, the Large & Small Magellanic Clouds, and M33, the cloud assembly/collapse timescales are all found to be monotonically decreasing power-law functions of density, with as yet to be explained differences.