To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important grain legume in tropical and subtropical regions. It requires low resource inputs and has a high nutritional value. Therefore, cowpea can play an important role in the development of agriculture. In southern Mexico, Mayan farmers have conserved and developed cowpea landraces for centuries. Nevertheless, information on their genetic diversity, conservation status and potential use is minimal. To generate information toward sustainable use, management and conservation of this species, we evaluated the genetic diversity and structure of 20 cowpea landraces from southeast Mexico using 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. These ISSR markers generated 68 loci with a 67.7% polymorphism rate and average polymorphic information content of 0.36. The results of Bayesian assignation and the UPGMA analysis suggest the formation of two main groups defined by their genetic origin in southeast Mexico. High levels of genetic structure were found with a moderate level of genetic diversity distributed mainly between landraces. Low levels of intra-landrace variability were observed. Two landraces (P5 and P12) from Calakmul resulted in the high levels of genetic diversity. The selected markers were efficient at assessing genetic variability among Mexican cowpea landraces, providing valuable information that can be used in local conservation and participatory breeding programmes.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
The literature recognizes differences in the prevalence, eating disorders (ED) symptoms and eating habits/behaviours by sex, but few studies in Portugal considered this subject.
To explore associations between sex, Body Mass Index (BMI), Eating Attitudes Test-25 (EAT-25) dimensions and items, the EAT-25 score dichotomized by the cutoff of 19 (a score equal/above 19 indicates “possible” ED) and, finally, some items about eating habits/behaviors; to verify possible associations between sociodemographic variables and items assessing eating habits/behaviours.
308 adolescents (M = 14,5 years; DP = 1,67; girls, n = 184, 59,7%) answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the EAT-25.
There were no significant associations between sex, categorized and dimensional BMI, EAT-25 dimensions, categorized EAT-25 (cutoff of 19) and items assessing eating habits/behaviors. However, some items of the EAT-25 revealed a significant association with sex. Most adolescents from both sexes presented a score below the cutoff of 19. The frequency with which young people drink sodas and eat vegetables is associated with father's educational level. The frequency with which adolescents eat vegetables and fast food is associated with the school area they attend.
Eating habits/behaviours are not as much negative as documented in some literature. There does not seem to exist significant sex differences regarding eating attitudes, “possible” ED, BMI and eating habits/behaviours. However, there are sex differences regarding some of the specific symptoms of EAT-25. It is good to verify that both sexes reveal a low prevalence of “possible” eating behaviour disorder, although girls reveal a higher value.
There are few studies in the international and national literature exploring the association between parental rearing styles, eating habits/behaviours and symptoms of Eating Disorders (ED).
To examine the associations between the dimensions of Parental Rearing Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (EMBU-A), the dimensions of a test assessing eating disorders symptoms (Eating Attitudes Test-25/EAT-25), Body Mass Index (BMI), items assessing eating habits/behaviors and sociodemographic family and health variables; to explore which are the predictors of symptoms of eating disorders and eating habits/behaviours.
402 adolescents (girls: n = 241, 60%) between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14,2, SD = 1,62) answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the EMBU-A and the EAT-25.
We found a negative association between Emotional Support (EMBU-A), all the EAT-25 dimensions and EAT-25 total score. There was, generally, a positive association between the Overprotection and Rejection dimensions (EMBU-A) and the same results of the EAT-25. Sports’ practice was associated with a higher mean score of Motivation for Thinness and the total score of the EAT-25. In the predictive analyses, Emotional Support showed to decrease the likelihood of adolescents manifesting ED symptoms and Rejection to increase that likelihood.
Emotional Support seems to be protective of ED symptoms and dysfunctional eating habits/behaviors appearance in adolescents, while Rejection appears to increase the risk of these two outcomes. These dimensions should be worked together with parents, eventually, by psicoeducational programs. At schools and health centers, programs can be implemented to improve eating habits/behaviors and help prevent ED development
Depression is very common among institutionalized elders. Because of the increased risk of cognitive impairment/dementia, and mortality we want to describe the evolution of depression and analyze predictive factors.
In the Aging Trajectories Study (Instituto Superior Miguel Torga - Coimbra), we followed up a sample of 83 nondemented persons (M ± SD baseline age = 79.51 ± 6.58; men: 17; women: 66). In a 2-year prospective cohort analysis (2010-2011, and 2013), we assessed depression using the Geriatric Depressive Scale/GDS as screening tool and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose depression. We also used the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale/PANAS. Sociodemographics, and health were control variables. We performed a multinomial logistic regression to identify predicitive factors.
Fifty participants had depression at baseline, nine developed, 49 maintained, nine remitted, and 16 maintained without depression.
Having depression was associated with worse scores in UCLA, GAI, and PANAS. Not having depression was correlated with higher positive affect.
Baseline higher GAI and UCLA, and lower positive affect and satisfaction predicted recurrent depression.
Improvement in GDS, GAI, and positive affect predicted depression remission.
Results show that depression is a concern issue for professionals working with institutionalized elderly. Anxiety, loneliness, low positive affect and satisfaction constitute a risk factor for maintaing depression in institutionalized elderly and low anxiety and depressive symptoms are a protective factors for depression. These results could be used in depression prevention programs.
Differences in eating habits/behaviours and eating disorders (ED) symptoms in adolescents from rural and urban schools has not been very considered, particularly in Portugal.
explore differences between students who attend rural and urban schools in eating habits/behaviors and ED symptoms; verify if there are differences regarding Body Mass Index (BMI) by school area.
282 adolescents students (mean age = 14,5; SD = 1,69; variation = 12-18 years old; urban subsample = 126, 44,7%), studying in two schools, one from an urban area and another from a rural area answered sociodemographic questions, eating habits/behaviours items and EAT-25 (Eating Attitudes Test-25).
Most of the adolescents from both schools have breakfast and drink milk daily. Moreover, they eat vegetables and fruits daily or weekly and only rarely fast-food. Adolescents that practice a sport eat more fruits/vegetables. Adolescents attending a rural school ingest more vegetables and less fast-food. ED symptoms (EAT-25) present a lower prevalence, comparing to a young adults sample. There were no significant differences in all the EAT-25 dimensions, EAT total score and BMI by school area.
Eating habits/behaviours seem to be positive in both schools (e.g. most adolescents have breakfast daily). There were only some small differences between the two schools in particular eating habits but adolescents from the two areas do not seem to differ in ED symptoms and BMI, which is not in accordance with the literature that tends to signal urban areas as a “risk factor” for dysfunctional eating behaviors.
It is known that the level of dietary protein modulates the enzymatic activity of the digestive tract of fish; however, its effect at the molecular level on these enzymes and the hormones regulating appetite has not been well characterised. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CP on the activity of proteases and the expression of genes related to the ingestion and protein digestion of juveniles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.), as well as the effects on performance, protein retention and body composition of tilapia. A total of 240 juveniles (29.32 ± 5.19 g) were used, distributed across 20 tanks of 100 l in a closed recirculation system. The fish were fed to apparent satiety for 42 days using four isoenergetic diets with different CP levels (24%, 30%, 36% and 42%). The results indicate that fish fed the 30% CP diet exhibited a higher growth performance compared to those on the 42% CP diet (P < 0.05). Feed intake in fish fed 24% and 30% CP diets was significantly higher than that in fish fed 36% and 42% CP diets (P < 0.05). A significant elevation of protein retention was observed in fish fed with 24% and 30% CP diets. Fish fed with 24% CP exhibited a significant increase in lipid deposition in the whole body. The diet with 42% CP was associated with the highest expression of pepsinogen and the lowest activity of acid protease (P < 0.05). The expression of hepatopancreatic trypsinogen increased as CP levels in the diet increased (P < 0.05) up to 36%, whereas trypsin activity showed a significant reduction with 42% CP (P < 0.05). The diet with 42% CP was associated with the lowest intestinal chymotrypsinogen expression and the lowest chymotrypsin activity (P < 0.05). α-amylase expression decreased with increasing (P < 0.05) CP levels up to 36%. No significant differences were observed in the expression of procarboxypeptidase, lipase or leptin among all the groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the diet with 42% CP resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in the expression of ghrelin and insulin and an increase (P < 0.05) in the expression of cholecystokinin and peptide yy. It is concluded that variation in dietary protein promoted changes in the metabolism of the red tilapia, which was reflected in proteolytic activity and expression of digestion and appetite-regulating genes.
Research has shown that PTSD is prevalent among firefighters and police forces and that Quality of Life (QoL) is seriously compromised in individuals suffering from PTSD. However, QoL studies with these professionals are scarce. This study results from a screening program held by the Portuguese Red Cross (PRC) aiming to analyze predictors of QoL. Participants were 95 firefighters and municipal police officers. They answered the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5) in order to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, as well as measures of social support (3-Item Oslo Social Support Scale) and QoL (EUROHIS-QOL-8). From the results, there were no group differences regarding total PTSD, social support or QoL and 10% of participants reported enough symptoms to PTSD diagnostic. Social Support and PTSD explained 25% of QoL variance, PTSD symptoms explaining 10% (negative beta) and, in the second step, social support explained 15%. The results suggest that it would be important to include QoL as an outcome measure in clinical and research work in these populations, with special attention to PTSD and social support.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychosis spectrum disorder has a complex pathoetiology characterised by interacting environmental and genetic vulnerabilities. The present study aims to investigate the role of gene–environment interaction using aggregate scores of genetic (polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ)) and environment liability for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia (ES-SCZ)) across the psychosis continuum.
The sample consisted of 1699 patients, 1753 unaffected siblings, and 1542 healthy comparison participants. The Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R) was administered to analyse scores of total, positive, and negative schizotypy in siblings and healthy comparison participants. The PRS-SCZ was trained using the Psychiatric Genomics Consortiums results and the ES-SCZ was calculated guided by the approach validated in a previous report in the current data set. Regression models were applied to test the independent and joint effects of PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ (adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry using 10 principal components).
Both genetic and environmental vulnerability were associated with case-control status. Furthermore, there was evidence for additive interaction between binary modes of PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ (above 75% of the control distribution) increasing the odds for schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (relative excess risk due to interaction = 6.79, [95% confidential interval (CI) 3.32, 10.26], p < 0.001). Sensitivity analyses using continuous PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ confirmed gene–environment interaction (relative excess risk due to interaction = 1.80 [95% CI 1.01, 3.32], p = 0.004). In siblings and healthy comparison participants, PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ were associated with all SIS-R dimensions and evidence was found for an interaction between PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ on the total (B = 0.006 [95% CI 0.003, 0.009], p < 0.001), positive (B = 0.006 [95% CI, 0.002, 0.009], p = 0.002), and negative (B = 0.006, [95% CI 0.004, 0.009], p < 0.001) schizotypy dimensions.
The interplay between exposome load and schizophrenia genetic liability contributing to psychosis across the spectrum of expression provide further empirical support to the notion of aetiological continuity underlying an extended psychosis phenotype.
Cipo Canastero Asthenes luizae is a relict ovenbird restricted to rocky outcrops at high elevations within the campo rupestre vegetation of the Espinhaço Range in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. This poorly known species is considered ‘Near Threatened’, but recent studies have suggested that it should be listed under a higher category of threat. To contribute to the knowledge of this species and its conservation assessment and related planning, we compiled all literature records of the species distribution (n = 16 locations), collected new data on its occurrence (n = 72 locations), and calculated its geographic range using four different approaches. First, we defined the sky islands where the species occurs (nine units) using the lowest elevation value recorded (1,100 m asl) as a cut-off. Second, we performed species distribution modelling (SDM) across the sky islands and identified an area of 2,225.21 km2. Third, we measured the species’ extent of occurrence (EOO = 24,555.85 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (EOOup = 30,697.58 km2). Fourth, we measured the area of occupancy (AOO = 228 km2) and used SDM to estimate its upper limit (AOOup = 1,827.39 km2). We analysed the Cipo Canastero sky islands in terms of landscape metrics including size, isolation, protected area coverage, shape index, core area index, and proportion covered by SDM. We observed a very fragmented distribution, especially in the North sector of the species distribution, composed of small and isolated populations (separated by up to 112 km); the South sector is the core of its distribution and is composed of larger, more connected patches with differences in shape complexity that are not strongly influenced by an edge effect. The range sizes calculated, along with other reported information regarding population and habitat trends, justifies the inclusion of the species in at least the ‘Vulnerable’ category.
The Rio Grande Cone is a major fanlike depositional feature in the continental slope of the Pelotas Basin, Southern Brazil. Two representative sediment cores collected in the Cone area were retrieved using a piston core device. In this work, the organic matter (OM) in the sediments was characterized for a continental vs. marine origin using chemical proxies to help constrain the origin of gas in hydrates. The main contribution of OM was from marine organic carbon based on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C-org) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (TOC:TN) analyses. In addition, the 14C data showed important information about the origin of the OM and we suggest some factors that could modify the original organic matter and therefore mask the “real” 14C ages: (1) biological activity that could modify the carbon isotopic composition of bulk terrestrial organic matter values, (2) the existence of younger sediments from mass wasting deposits unconformably overlying older sediments, and (3) the deep-sediment-sourced methane contribution due to the input of “old” (>50 ka) organic compounds from migrating fluids.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Recently, great attention has been directed towards the use of essential oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidant in food matrix. Fish is well known to be a high perishable food. Indeed, fish muscle is susceptible to suffer protein and lipid oxidation during frozen storage, which can lead to the development of softening and undesirable volatile molecules. However, the possible inclusion of essential oils in fish feed for preserving fish flesh quality during storage is still unclear. For this reason, the potential protective effects of the incorporation of a dietary essential oil constituted by eucalyptol, carvacrol and thymol, to rainbow trout’s (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feed were here investigated. Frozen fish fillets resulting from trout fed the essential oil showed a significant protection of specific muscle proteins against the oxidation produced during frozen storage at –10ºC for 6 months. Essential oil-enriched feed decreased carbonylation of specific myofibrillar (α-actinins-1 and -3, myosin heavy chain, myomesin-1, pyruvate kinase, tropomyosin, troponin-T and actin) and sarcoplasmic proteins (glycogen phosphorylase, creatine kinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A and phosphoglycerate mutase 2). Essential oils also increased actin stability and preserved muscle protein solubility and water holding capacity. In addition, essential oils inhibited the onset of lipid oxidation and rancidity, resulting in frozen fish with superior textural quality and sensory scores. As a final conclusion, the inclusion of essential oils in farmed rainbow trout feed is largely efficient for increasing fish quality and shelf life during frozen storage, mainly through a selective-antioxidant effect on muscle proteins.
The effects of growing pinto peanut mixed with elephant grass-based pastures are still little known. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the performance of herbage yield, nutritive value of forage and animal responses to levels of pinto peanut forage mass mixed with elephant grass in low-input systems. Three grazing systems were evaluated: (i) elephant grass-based (control); (ii) pinto peanut, low-density forage yield (63 g/kg of dry matter – DM) + elephant grass; and (iii) pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield (206 g/kg DM) + elephant grass. The experimental design was completely randomized with the three treatments (grazing systems) and three replicates (paddocks) in split-plot grazing cycles. Forage samples were collected to evaluate the pasture and animal responses. Leaf blades of elephant grass and the other companion grasses of pinto peanut were collected to analyse the crude protein, in vitro digestible organic matter and total digestible nutrients. The pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield + elephant grass treatment was found to give the best results in terms of herbage yield, forage intake and stocking rate, as well as having higher crude protein contents for both elephant grass and the other grasses, followed by pinto peanut with low-density forage yield + elephant grass and finally elephant grass alone. Better results were found with the grass–legume system for pasture and animal responses.
There have been few studies realized that evaluate the effects of adopting
different nutritional systems in more than one phase of cattle production on
carcass and meat characteristics. This study was realized to evaluate carcass
and meat characteristics from bulls submitted to different nutritional systems
during two production phases. The experiment was conducted at
Figueira’s farm during two production phases: I (cow–calf)
– 80 calves (99.6±2.72 days of age and
109.7±2.99 kg of BW) with their mothers were randomly assigned into
two supplemental diets: cow–calf mineral supplement
(n=40) or cow–calf creep-feeding
(n=40); II (stocker) – the same 80
calves (201.2±2.11 days of age and 190.2±3.37 kg of BW)
were redistributed into two production systems: stocker pasture
(n=40) or stocker feedlot (SF;
n=40). After, all 80 animals were kept on a pasture
system (III) for 290 days, and then finished in a feedlot system (IV) for more
33 days. Then, they were slaughtered at an average 764.2±3.06 days of
age and at 499.2±3.33 kg of final BW. After slaughter, the average
daily gain was calculated, and the carcass and meat characteristics were
measured. The statistical model design used was completely randomized in a
2×2 factorial arrangement (two treatment groups on
cow–calf phase and two treatment groups on stocker phase). The single
effects between the groups in each phase and the interactions between both
phases (cow–calf v. stocker) were analyzed. The
results were compared by Fisher’s test, using the R statistical
software. A cow–calf by stocker phases interaction occurred for
carcass conformation and fiber diameter. For single effects, the greatest
influences observed were in the stocker phase. The feedlot group was slaughtered
17 days earlier, with greater final BW (3.8%), hot carcass weight
(5.7%), average daily gain (6.9%), dressing percentage
(1.8%), carcass length (1.8%), carcass width
(1.5%), longissimus muscle area (4.8%)
and muscle depth (2.3%) than pasture group. The SF group also had
influence on fat color; showing higher L* and lower
b* values. These results reveal that bulls
reared in feedlot at the stocker phase have higher muscle development and that
the stocker phase has the greatest potential to influence carcass
characteristics and meat quality.