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Introduction: Point-of-Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) is being increasingly utilized during cardiac arrests for prognosis. Following the publication of recent studies, the goal of this study was to systematically review and analyze the literature to evaluate the accuracy of PoCUS in predicting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission (SHA), and survival to hospital discharge (SHD) in adult patients with non-traumatic, non- shockable out- of-hospital or emergency department cardiac arrest. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was completed. A search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization Registry was completed from 1974 until August 24th 2018. Adult randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included. The QUADAS-2 tool was applied by two independent reviewers. Data analysis was completed according to PRISMA guidelines and with a random effects model for the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using I-squared statistics. Results: Ten studies (1,485 participants) were included. Cardiac activity on PoCUS had a pooled sensitivity of 59.9% (95% confidence interval 36.5%-79.4%) and specificity of 91.5% (80.8%-96.5%) for ROSC; 74.7% (58.3%-86.2%) and 80.5% (71.7%-87.4%) for SHA; and 69.4% (45.5%-86.0%) and 74.6% (59.8%-85.3%) for SHD. The sensitivity of cardiac activity on PoCUS for predicting ROSC was 24.7%(6.8%-59.4%) in the asystole subgroup compared with 77% (59.4%-88.5%) within the PEA subgroup. Cardiac activity on PoCUS, compared to an absence had an odd ratio of 15.9 (5.9-42.5) for ROSC, 9.8 (4.9-19.4) for SHA and 5.7 (2.1-15.6) for SHD. Positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 6.65 (3.16-14.0) and negative LR was 0.27 (0.12-0.61) for ROSC. Conclusion: Cardiac activity on PoCUS was associated with improved odds for ROSC, SHA, and SHD among adults with non-traumatic asystole and PEA. We report lower sensitivity and higher negative likelihood ratio, but with greater heterogeneity compared to previous systematic reviews. PoCUS may provide valuable information in the management of non-traumatic PEA or asystole, but should not be viewed as the sole predictor in determining outcomes in these patients.
I. De Pater, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA,
D. P. Hamilton, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA,
M. R. Showalter, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
H. B. Throop, Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona, USA,
J. A. Burns, Cornell University Ithaca, New York, USA
Previous studies have examined associations of cardiometabolic factors with depression and cognition separately.
To determine if depressive symptoms mediate the association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline in two community studies.
Data for the analyses were drawn from the Rotterdam Study, the Netherlands (n = 2940) and the Whitehall II study, UK (n = 4469).
Mediation analyses suggested a direct association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline and an indirect association through depression: poorer cardiometabolic status at time 1 was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms at time 2 (standardised regression coefficient 0.07 and 0.06, respectively), which, in turn, was associated with greater cognitive decline between time 2 and time 3 (standardised regression coefficient of −0.15 and −0.41, respectively).
Evidence from two independent cohort studies suggest an association between cardiometabolic dysregulation and cognitive decline and that depressive symptoms tend to precede this decline.
There is growing interest in linking vitamin D deficiency with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The association between vitamin D deficiency during gestation, a critical period in neurodevelopment, and ASD is not well understood.
To determine the association between gestational vitamin D status and ASD.
Based on a birth cohort (n=4334), we examined the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), assessed from both maternal mid-gestation sera and neonatal sera, and ASD (defined by clinical records; n=68 cases).
Individuals in the 25OHD-deficient group at mid-gestation had more than twofold increased risk of ASD (odds ratio (OR)=2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 5.07, P=0.03) compared with the sufficient group. The findings persisted in analyses including children of European ethnicity only.
Mid-gestational vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased risk of ASD. Because gestational vitamin D deficiency is readily preventable with safe, inexpensive and readily available supplementation, this risk factor warrants closer scrutiny.
Laryngeal amyloidosis represents approximately 1 per cent of all benign laryngeal lesions, and can cause variable symptoms depending on anatomical location and size. Treatment ranges from observation through to endoscopic microsurgery, laser excision and laryngectomy.
To highlight the diversity of presentations, increase awareness of paediatric amyloidosis and update the reader on current management.
Five cases are illustrated. Four adult patients were female, and the one child, the second youngest in the literature, was male. Amyloid deposits were identified in all laryngeal areas, including the supraglottis, glottis and subglottis. Treatment consisted of balloon dilatation, endoscopic excision, laser cruciate incision, and resection with carbon dioxide laser, a microdebrider and coblation wands.
Laryngeal amyloidosis remains a rare and clinically challenging condition. Diagnosis should be considered for unusual appearing submucosal laryngeal lesions. Treatment of this disease needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis and managed within an appropriate multidisciplinary team.
Becoming widowed is a significant event. There is considerable evidence that surviving partners report substantial changes in their wellbeing and mental health. Changes can occur prior to partner's death as an anticipatory effect and consequently during the period after partner's death. For most, declines in wellbeing and mental health dissipate over time. However, there is a limited long-term evidence to compare age-normative trajectories in mental health and wellbeing with the trajectories of those who transition into widowhood.
Participants (n = 652) were older adults (aged 65–94 years at baseline) from the 16-year Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing project who were either married or de facto (n = 577), or recently widowed (n = 75). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) examined the immediate and long-term impact of widowhood. GEE piecewise regression analyses examined the trajectories of wellbeing and mental health in those who transitioned into widowed with time centered at time of partner's death. Analyses were stratified by gender.
For both men and women, becoming widowed was strongly related to a strong decline in positive affect post partner's death. Otherwise, no long-term impact of widowhood on negative affect or depressive symptomology was reported.
The impact of widowhood reports differential impacts on different indicators of wellbeing and mental health, which were inconsistent between men and women.
The Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics (ACAP) co-ordinates the activities of the six Australian research institutions and a group of industrial partners in the Australia-US Institute for Advanced Photovoltaics (AUSIAPV) to develop the next generations of photovoltaic device technology and to provide a pipeline of opportunities for performance increase and cost reduction. AUSIAPV links ACAP with US-based partners. These national and international research collaborations provide a pathway for highly visible, structured photovoltaic research collaboration between Australian and US researchers, institutes and agencies with significant joint programs based on the clear synergies between the participating organizations. The research program is organized in five collaborative Program Packages (PPs). PP1 deals with silicon wafer-based cells, focusing on three main areas: cells from solar grade silicon, rear contact and silicon-based tandem cells. PP2 involves research into a range of organic solar cells, organic/inorganic hybrid cells, "earth abundant" thin-film materials and "third generation" approaches. PP3 is concerned with optics and characterization. PP4 will deliver a substantiated methodology for assessing manufacturing costs of the different technologies and PP5 involves education, training and outreach. The main research topics, results and plans for the future are presented.
There has been major concern about the ‘over-representation’ of Black and ethnic minority groups amongst people detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA). We explored the effect of patient ethnicity on detention following an MHA assessment, once confounding variables were controlled for.
Prospective data were collected for all MHA assessments over 4-month periods in the years 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 each in three regions in England: Birmingham, West London and Oxfordshire. Logistic regression modelling was conducted to predict the outcome of MHA assessments – either resulting in ‘detention’ or ‘no detention’.
Of the 4423 MHA assessments, 2841 (66%) resulted in a detention. A diagnosis of psychosis, the presence of risk, female gender, level of social support and London as the site of assessment predicted detention under the MHA. Ethnicity was not an independent predictor of detention.
There is no evidence for that amongst those assessed under the MHA, ethnicity has an independent effect on the odds of being detained.