Men have earlier first-time event of CHD and higher postprandial TAG response compared with women. The aim of this exploratory sub-study was to investigate if intake of meals with the same amount of fat from different dairy products affects postprandial lipoprotein subclasses differently in healthy women and men. A total of thirty-three women and fourteen men were recruited to a randomised controlled cross-over study with four dairy meals consisting of butter, cheese, whipped cream or sour cream, corresponding to 45 g of fat (approximately 60 energy percent). Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using NMR and analysed using a linear mixed model. Sex had a significant impact on the response in M-VLDL (P=0·04), S-LDL (P=0·05), XL-HDL (P=0·009) and L-HDL (P=0·001) particle concentration (P), with women having an overall smaller increase in M-VLDL-P, a larger decrease in S-LDL-P and a larger increase in XL- and L-HDL-P compared with men, independent of meal. Men showed a decrease in XS-VLDL-P compared with women after intake of sour cream (P<0·01). In men only, XS-VLDL-P decreased after intake of sour cream compared with all other meals (v. butter: P=0·001; v. cheese: P=0·04;
v. whipped cream: P=0·006). Meals with the same amount of fat from different dairy products induce different postprandial effects on lipoprotein subclass concentrations in men and women.