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Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of infant birth weight, and having adequate total GWG has been widely recommended. However, the association of timing of GWG with birth weight remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate this association, especially among women with adequate total GWG. In a prospective cohort study, pregnant women’s weight was routinely measured during pregnancy, and their GWG was calculated for the ten intervals: the first 13, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–30, 31–32, 33–34, 35–36, 37–38 and 39–40 weeks. Birth weight was measured, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age were assessed. Generalized linear and Poisson models were used to evaluate the associations of GWG with birth weight and its outcomes after multivariate adjustment, respectively. Of the 5049 women, increased GWG in the first 30 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for male infants, and increased GWG in the first 28 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for females. Among 1713 women with adequate total GWG, increased GWG percent between 14 and 23 weeks was associated with increased birth weight. Moreover, inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks, compared with the adequate GWG, was associated with an increased risk of SGA (43 (13·7 %) v. 42 (7·2 %); relative risk 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·76). Timing of GWG may influence infant birth weight differentially, and women with inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks may be at higher risk of delivering SGA infants, despite having adequate total GWG.
Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder that needs treatment based on extensive experience. Antipsychotic drugs have already become the cornerstone of the treatment for schizophrenia; however, the therapeutic effect is of significant variability among patients, and only around a third of patients with schizophrenia show good efficacy. Meanwhile, drug-induced metabolic syndrome and other side-effects significantly affect treatment adherence and prognosis. Therefore, strategies for drug selection are desperately needed. In this study, we will perform pharmacogenomics research and set up an individualised preferred treatment prediction model.
We aim to create a standard clinical cohort, with multidimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia.
This trial is designed as a randomised clinical trial comparing treatment with different kinds of antipsychotics. A total sample of 2000 patients with schizophrenia will be recruited from in-patient units from five clinical research centres. Using a computer-generated program, the participants will be randomly assigned to four treatment groups: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia, which reflects the efficacy. Secondary outcomes include the measure of side-effects, such as metabolic syndromes. The efficacy evaluation and side-effects assessment will be performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months.
This trial will assess the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotics and create a standard clinical cohort with a multi-dimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia patients.
This study aims to set up an individualized preferred treatment prediction model through the genetic analysis of patients using different kinds of antipsychotics.
In the analysis of the interaction between external periodic excitation and unsteady separated flow in controlling the flow separation, a new nonlinear approximate model has been established. This model is used to describe the typical chaotic and coherent characteristics of a separated flow such as small- or large-scale vortices, the injection, and the dissipation of the kinetic energy based on a simulation of a simplified cross-direction motion of free shear flows. This study presents an appropriate treatment to simulate the external periodic excitation and uses the maximum Lyapunov exponent to evaluate the degree of flow ordering in the different control states. The results of the nonlinear model are compared with experimental and numerical results, showing that the nonlinear model could be used to effectively explain the behaviours of chaotic flows and investigate the rules for controlling separated flows. In addition, as shown in the nonlinear approximate model, the self-synchronization of unsteady flow separation and periodic excitation has been analysed. Initially, the research provided an explanation of the self-synchronization mechanism, which cites that the effects of the separated flow control are independent of the phase difference between the periodic excitation and the unsteady flow. The characteristics of unsteady separated flow control have also been presented in this model, where the corresponding large eddy simulation (LES) was used for separated flows in a curved diffuser. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method was used to analyse the difference between separated vortical structures with or without periodic excitation. The results showed that the model and the simulation had the same mechanism of flow control as for the separated flows. The periodic excitation transforms the original chaotic flow into a relatively ordered flow and decreases the magnitude of the chaotic unstable vortices, rather than completely eliminating the vortices, while flow mixing is reduced, inducing less energy loss.
A diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) is applied to measure the plasma ion temperature and rotation speed in the HT-7 tokamak. Also, a heating neutral beam (HNB) is suggested as an effective method of heating a plasma for the EAST tokamak. As a necessary step to evaluate the required beam power in both applications, the attenuation of the injected neutral beam has been numerically calculated and analyzed considering the effect of various plasma parameters, such as electron temperature, electron density, impurity concentration, and so on. Three basic atomic processes are considered here. It is shown that at the same electron density neutral beam particles can penetrate deeper at higher injection energies and a DNB with the same full energy can attenuate faster at higher electron densities. The impurity effect on the attenuation of a DNB is discussed, and the attenuation of a HNB on the EAST tokamak is also considered.
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