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The preparation of three-dimensional honeycomb nitrogen-doped carbon materials (3D-HNCMs) which can be used as electrode materials for supercapacitors is reported. The composites with the 3D honeycomb structure exhibited better electrochemical performance, and the structure and properties were proved by various means, such as SEM, TEM, IR, N2 sorption, XRD and XPS. Used as electrode materials for supercapacitors in the KOH electrolyte, 3D-HNCMs displayed a significantly high specific capacitance (409 F/g at a current of 0.5 A/g). Moreover, the 3D-HNCM electrode exhibited superior electrochemical performance, such as excellent cycling stability (98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles), a maximum energy density of 15.37 W h/kg, a maximum power density of 40.3 kW/kg, and low equivalent series resistance (2.1 Ω). Particularly, the electrochemical characteristic of 3D-HNCMs could be attributed to the synergistic effect of a high surface area, unique microporous and mesoporous structure, and nitrogen atom doping. These carbon materials with unique structure are promising electrode materials for future supercapacitor application.
We previously reported four heterozygous missense mutations of MYH7, KCNQ1, MYLK2, and TMEM70 in a single three-generation Chinese family with dual Long QT and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotypes for the first time. However, the clinical course among the family members was various, and the potential myocardial dysfunction has not been investigated.
The objective of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic and electrocardiographic characteristics in a genetic positive Chinese family with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and further to explore the association between myocardial dysfunction and electric activity, and the identified mutations.
A comprehensive echocardiogram – standard two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography – and electrocardiogram were obtained for members in this family.
As previously reported, four missense mutations – MYH7-H1717Q, KCNQ1-R190W, MYLK2-K324E, and TMEM70-I147T – were identified in this family. The MYH7-H1717Q mutation carriers had significantly increased left ventricular mass indices, elevated E/e’ ratio, deteriorated global longitudinal stain, but enhanced global circumferential and radial strain compared with those in non-mutation patients (all p<0.05). The KCNQ1-R190W carriers showed significantly prolonged QTc intervals, and the MYLK2-K324E mutation carriers showed inverted T-waves (both p<0.05). However, the TMEM70-I147T mutation carriers had similar echocardiography and electrocardiographic data as non-mutation patients.
Three of the identified four mutations had potential pathogenic effects in this family: MYH7-H1717Q was associated with increased left ventricular thickness, elevated left ventricular filling pressure, and altered myocardial deformation; KCNQ1-R190W and MYLK2-K324E mutations were correlated with electrocardiographic abnormalities reflected in long QT phenotype and inverted T-waves, respectively.
In this paper, the kinematic accuracy problem caused by geometric errors of a 2(3HUS+S) parallel manipulator is described. The kinematic equation of the manipulator is obtained by establishing a D–H (Denavit–Hartenberg) coordinate system. A D–H transformation matrix is used as the error-modeling tool, and the kinematic error model of the manipulator integrating manufacturing and assembly errors is established based on the perturbation theory. The iterative Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is used to identify the geometric errors in the error model. According to the experimentally measured attitudes, the kinematic calibration process is simulated using MATLAB software. The simulation and experiment results show that the attitude errors of the moving platforms after calibration are reduced compared with before the calibration, and the kinematic accuracy of the manipulator is significantly improved. The correctness and effectiveness of the error model and the kinematic calibration method of the 2(3HUS+S) parallel manipulator for simulation of hip joint motion are verified.
Nanotechnology has been considered as a promising strategy for diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. However, the stability and circulation times of the conventional nano-carriers, such as liposomes and micelles, are still unsatisfied. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are biologic inert synthetic materials, which are highly hydrophobic and have a tendency to self-aggregation. Additionally, PFCs themselves can act as 19F magnetic resonance imaging agents and oxygen carriers. Thus, the construction of the fluorinated carriers will not only improve the stability of the carriers, but also endow them with additional functions. Here we review the recent advances of PFC-based nanosystems for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
We discuss an efficient preconditioner and iterative numerical method to solve large complex linear algebraic systems of the form (W + iT)u = c, where W and T are symmetric matrices, and at least one of them is nonsingular. When the real part W is dominantly stronger or weaker than the imaginary part T, we propose a block multiplicative (BM) preconditioner or its variant (VBM), respectively. The BM and VBM preconditioned iteration methods are shown to be parameter-free, in terms of eigenvalue distributions of the preconditioned matrix. Furthermore, when the relationship between W and T is obscure, we propose a new preconditioned BM method (PBM) to overcome this difficulty. Both convergent properties of these new iteration methods and spectral properties of the corresponding preconditioned matrices are discussed. The optimal value of iteration parameter for the PBM method is determined. Numerical experiments involving the Helmholtz equation and some other applications show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed preconditioners and corresponding iterative methods.
Lutein benefits human health significantly, including that of the eyes, skin and heart. Therefore, increasing lutein content in soybean seeds is an important objective for breeding programmes. However, no information about soybean lutein-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) has been reported, as of 2016. The aim of the present study was to identify QTLs underlying the lutein content in soybean seeds. A population including 129 recombinant inbred lines was developed from the cross between ‘Dongnong46’ (lutein 13·10 µg/g) and ‘L-100’ (lutein 23·96 µg/g), which significantly differed in seed lutein contents. This population was grown in ten environments including Harbin in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015; Hulan in 2013, 2014 and 2015; and Acheng in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A total of 213 simple sequence repeat markers were used to construct the genetic linkage map, which covered approximately 3623·39 cM, with an average distance of 17·01 cM between markers. In the present study, eight QTLs associated with lutein content were found initially, which could explain 1·01–19·66% of the observed phenotypic variation in ten different tested environments. The phenotypic contribution of qLU-1 (located near BARC-Satt588 on chromosome 9 (Chr 9; linkage group (LG) K)) was >10% across seven tested environments, while qLU-2 (located near Satt192 of Chr 12 (LG H)) and qLU-3 (located near Satt353 of Chr12 (LGH)) could explain 5–10% of the observed phenotypic variation in more than seven environments, respectively. qLU-5, qLU-6, qLU-7 and qLU-8 could be detected in more than four environments. These eight QTLs were novel, and have considerable potential value for marker-assistant selection of higher lutein content in soybean lines.
This article outlines the evolution of a rescue team in responding to adenovirus prevention with a deployable field hospital. The local governments mobilized a shelter hospital and a rescue team consisting of 59 members to assist with rescue and response efforts after an epidemic outbreak of adenovirus. We describe and evaluate the challenges of preparing for deployment, field hospital maintenance, treatment mode, and primary treatment methods. The field hospital established at the rescue scene consisted of a medical command vehicle, a computed tomography shelter, an X-ray shelter, a special laboratory shelter, an oxygen and electricity supply vehicle, and epidemic prevention and protection equipment. The rescue team comprised paramedics, physicians, X-ray technicians, respiratory therapists, and logistical personnel. In 22 days, more than 3000 patients with suspected adenovirus infection underwent initial examinations. All patients were properly treated, and no deaths occurred. After emergency measures were implemented, the spread of adenovirus was eventually controlled. An emergency involving infectious diseases in less-developed regions demands the rapid development of a field facility with specialized medical personnel when local hospital facilities are either unavailable or unusable. An appropriate and detailed prearranged action plan is important for infectious diseases prevention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:109–114)
For the prevention and control of newly emergent or sudden infectious diseases, we built an on-site, modularized prevention and control system and tested the equipment by using the clustering analysis method. On the basis of this system, we propose a modular equipment allocation method and 4 applications of this method for different types of infectious disease prevention and control. This will help to improve the efficiency and productivity of anti-epidemic emergency forces and will provide strong technical support for implementing more universal and serialized equipment in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:375–382)
In this paper, we first construct a preconditioned two-parameter generalized Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (PTGHSS) iteration method based on the two-parameter generalized Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (TGHSS) iteration method for non-Hermitian positive definite linear systems. Then a class of PTGHSS-based iteration methods are proposed for solving weakly nonlinear systems based on separable property of the linear and nonlinear terms. The conditions for guaranteeing the local convergence are studied and the quasi-optimal iterative parameters are derived. Numerical experiments are implemented to show that the new methods are feasible and effective for large scale systems of weakly nonlinear systems.
A lopsided alternating direction iteration (LADI) method and an induced block diagonal preconditioner for solving block two-by-two generalised saddle point problems are presented. The convergence of the LADI method is analysed, and the block diagonal preconditioner can accelerate the convergence rates of Krylov subspace iteration methods such as GMRES. Our new preconditioned method only requires a solver for two linear equation sub-systems with symmetric and positive definite coefficient matrices. Numerical experiments show that the GMRES with the new preconditioner is quite effective.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
We investigated the time lags and the evolution of the cross spectrua of Z source GX 5-1, observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), when it is in the horizontal branch oscillations. We showed that the time lags of 3 horizontal branch oscillations are related to the position on the hardness intensity diagram. 3 QPOs were shown to be of the hard time lags. But on the cross spectra, one is in a “dip”, one in a “bump”, another has not that chracteristic. The time lags of two of the QPOs decrease with QPO's frequency, and one has a trend increasing with its freuqency. In the normal branch, we found that there is no significant time lags in the present observational data.
Accumulating evidence suggests that altered immunity contributes to the
development of major depressive disorder (MDD).
To examine whether complement factor H (CFH), a regulator of activation
of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade, confers
susceptibility to MDD.
Expression analyses were tested in 53 unmedicated people with MDD and 55
healthy controls. A two-stage genetic association analysis was performed
in 3323 Han Chinese with or without MDD. Potential associations between
CFH single nucleotide polymorphisms and age at MDD
onset were evaluated.
CFH levels were significantly lower in the MDD group at
both protein and mRNA levels (P = 0.009 and
P = 0.014 respectively). A regulatory variant in the
CFH gene, rs1061170, showed statistically significant
genotypic and allelic differences between the MDD and control groups
(genotypic P = 0.0005, allelic P =
0.0001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that age at onset of MDD
was significantly associated with the C allele of
rs1061170 (log rank statistic χ2 = 6.82, P =
0.009). The C-allele carriers had a younger age at onset
of MDD (22.2 years, s.d. = 4.0) than those without the C
allele (23.6 years, s.d. = 4.3).
CFH is likely to play an important role in the
development of MDD. rs1061170 has an important effect on age at onset of
MDD in Han Chinese and may therefore be related to early pathogenesis of
MDD, although further study is needed.
To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 9 affect the susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine transmission, we genotyped 399 neonates for TLR3 (c.1377C/T) [rs3775290] and TLR9 (G2848A) [rs352140] using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). A femoral venous blood sample was obtained from these subjects. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay kits and hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) levels were determined by fluorescence quantitative PCR assay. Our results showed that when adjusting for maternal HBeAg, maternal HBV DNA and mode of delivery, allele ‘T’ for SNP c.1377C/T was significantly associated with HBV intrauterine transmission susceptibility [adjusted OR (aOR) 0·55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·34–0·91, P = 0·020] and the TT genotype decreased the risk of HBV intrauterine transmission (aOR 0·28, 95% CI 0·09–0·91, P = 0·033). Allele ‘A’ for SNP G2848A was significantly associated with HBV intrauterine transmission susceptibility (aOR 0·62, 95% CI 0·39–1·00, P = 0·048) and the GA genotype protected neonates from HBV intrauterine transmission (aOR 0·45, 95% CI 0·22–0·93, P = 0·031). The TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR9 (G2848A) polymorphisms may be relevant for HBV intrauterine transmission susceptibility, although the reduction in risk to HBV intrauterine transmission is modest and the biological mechanism of the observed association merits further investigation.
While rabies is a significant public health concern in China, the epidemiology of animal rabies in the north and northwest border provinces remains unknown. From February 2013 to March 2014, seven outbreaks of domestic animal rabies caused by wild carnivores in Xinjiang (XJ) and Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Regions, China were reported and diagnosed in brain samples of infected animals by the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and RT–PCR. Ten field rabies viruses were obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on the complete N gene (1353 bp) amplified directly from the original brain tissues showed that these ten strains were steppe-type viruses, closely related to strains reported in Russia and Mongolia. None had been identified previously in China. The viruses from XJ and IM clustered separately into two lineages showing their different geographical distribution. This study emphasizes the importance of wildlife surveillance and of cross-departmental cooperation in the control of transboundary rabies transmission.
Plant height is important for crop yield improvement. In this study, a dwarf mutant, Gmdwarf1, was screened from a γ-ray-treated soybean population. Compared with the wild type, the mutant exhibited later germination, smaller and darker green leaves, and less-elongated shoots. Genome-wide transcriptome detection through RNA-seq analysis revealed that not only gibberellin-related genes but many other genes involved in hormone biosynthetic pathways were also significantly influenced in the mutant. We presumed that Gmdwarf1 might play essential roles in the plant hormone pathways. Future functional analysis of this dwarf mutant would help us to understand the underlying mechanisms and be beneficial for improving soybean yield.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the ability to self-renew and offer a pathway for genetic engineering of the male germ line. Cryopreservation of SSCs has potential value for the treatment of male infertility, spermatogonial transplantation, and so on. In order to investigate the cryopreservation effects of different cryoprotectants on murine SSCs, 0.2 M of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), trehalose and soybean lecithin were added to the cryoprotective medium, respectively, and the murine SSCs were frozen at −80°C or −196°C. The results indicated that the optimal recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with LDL, trehalose and soybean lecithin were 92.53, 76.35 and 75.48% at −80°C, respectively. Compared with freezing at −196°C, the optimum temperature for improvement of recovery rates of frozen murine SSCs, cryopreservation in three different cryoprotectants at −80°C, were 17.11, 6.68 and 10.44% respectively. The recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with 0.2 M LDL were significantly higher than that of other cryoprotectants (P < 0.05). Moreover, the recovery rates were demonstrated to be greater at −80°C compared with at −196°C (P < 0.05). In conclusion, 0.2 M of LDL could significantly protect murine SSCs at −80°C. In the freezing–thawing process, LDL is responsible for the cryopreservation of murine SSCs because it can form a protective film at the surface of membranes. However, more research is needed to evaluate and understand the precise role of LDL during the freezing–thawing of SSCs.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague–Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N (I/R) and EN (I/R) sub-groups (P < 0·05). The activation of NF-κB and the expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 mRNA significantly increased in the jejunum, ileum, liver and lung after intestinal I/R injury, but notably lower in the I/R+D groups than those in I/R (P < 0·05). The injury degree and HMGB1 expression were decreased in the n-3 PUFA group than in the N and EN groups. We preliminarily concluded that nutrition with n-3 PUFA and/or intestinal lymph drainage may reduce HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokine in serum and lymph and inhibit the expression and signal transmission of TLR4 mRNA, thereby alleviating intestinal I/R injury in rats.