Brazil is a newcomer in science and technology (S&T) because the country woke up to this area only in the last 40 years. Brazil’s scientific community was very small until the 1960s, when full-time faculty positions at universities and graduate programs were created. Investments in graduate education and research have been consistent since the 1970s, and the country currently has about 150,000 researchers, of which 85,000 have PhD degrees. In the last 10 years, federal funds for research and development (R&D) have been increased by a factor of 10. At the same time, a robust system has been structured to support R&D and technology innovation, and the legal framework has been improved to stimulate development in companies. According to former Minister of Science and Technology Sérgio Rezende (2005–2010), a materials researcher himself, Brazil is prepared within its research centers and industry for the energy challenges ahead.