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Significant investment in new capacities for experimental research at high temperatures and pressures have provided new levels of understanding about the physical properties of carbon in fluids and melts, including its viscosity, electrical conductivity, and density. This chapter reviews the physical properties of carbon-bearing melts and fluids at high temperatures and pressures and highlights remaining unknowns left to be explored. The chapter also reviews how the remote sensing of the inaccessible parts of the Earth via various geophysical techniques – seismic shear wave velocity, attenuation, and electromagnetic signals of mantle depths – can be reconciled with the potential presence of carbon-bearing melts or fluids.
Accurate real-time simulations and forecasting of phase-revolved ocean surface waves require nonlinear effects, both geometrical and kinematic, to be accurately represented. For this purpose, wave models based on a Lagrangian steepness expansion have proved particularly efficient, as compared to those based on Eulerian expansions, as they feature higher-order nonlinearities at a reduced numerical cost. However, while they can accurately model the instantaneous nonlinear wave shape, Lagrangian models developed to date cannot accurately predict the time evolution of even simple periodic waves. Here, we propose a novel and simple method to perform a Lagrangian expansion of surface waves to second order in wave steepness, based on the dynamical system relating particle locations and the Eulerian velocity field. We show that a simple redefinition of reference particles allows us to correct the time evolution of surface waves, through a modified nonlinear dispersion relationship. The resulting expressions of free surface particle locations can then be made numerically efficient by only retaining the most significant contributions to second-order terms, i.e. Stokes drift and mean vertical level. This results in a hybrid model, referred to as the ‘improved choppy wave model’ (ICWM) (with respect to Nouguier et al.’s J. Geophys. Res., vol. 114, 2009, p. C09012), whose performance is numerically assessed for long-crested waves, both periodic and irregular. To do so, ICWM results are compared to those of models based on a high-order spectral method and classical second-order Lagrangian expansions. For irregular waves, two generic types of narrow- and broad-banded wave spectra are considered, for which ICWM is shown to significantly improve wave forecast accuracy as compared to other Lagrangian models; hence, ICWM is well suited to providing accurate and efficient short-term ocean wave forecast (e.g. over a few peak periods). This aspect will be the object of future work.
The objectives of the study were to examine the trajectory of spirituality among older adults, to investigate the roles of gender and religion on the developmental trajectory of spirituality, and to explore whether the linear growth of spirituality accelerated or decelerated at time points at which the participants reported high scores of social support and flexibility.
A five-year longitudinal study.
The research used data from a longitudinal study, which follows a non-institutionalized older adults cohort of residents from France. The data used in this paper were collected at three time points (T1: 2007; T2: 2009; T3: 2012).
A total of 567 participants were included in the analysis (59.44% female; Mage = 75.90, SD = 5.12).
Multilevel growth curve analysis was used measuring spirituality, satisfaction with social support, and flexibility.
The results indicated the following: (1) stability of spirituality over time, (2) older women reported higher levels of spirituality than older men, and those who had a religion reported higher scores of spirituality than their counterparts who had no religion (these effects were strong and clinically meaningful), (3) older adults who reported higher levels of social support and flexibility also reported higher levels of spirituality, and (4) the slope of spirituality seemed to accelerate at time points at which participants also had higher levels of social support and flexibility (these effects were rather small but of theoretical interest).
The results of the present study help to improve the understanding of the potential benefit of encouraging the spiritual aspects of life.
The values of the Voellmy friction parameters of 735 historical avalanches that have occurred along 26 paths in the Chamonix valley, France, since 1958 are back-analyzed with a depth-averaged hydraulic model, including sub-models for erosion, entrainment and deposition. For each path, the longitudinal and crosswise topographic profiles were derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model acquired by laser scanning. The initial snow depth and snow cohesion, as well as various physical properties of snow, were computed from numerical simulations of the detailed snowpack model Crocus fed by the SAFRAN meteorological analysis. For each event, the full ranges of the two friction parameters were scanned and the pairs of friction parameters for which the run-out altitude is found close enough to the observed one (with an uncertainty of ±5 m) were retained. Statistical class analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the obtained friction coefficients and the snow physical properties. No evident trend with the snow parameters was found for the inertial friction coefficient. For the static friction coefficient, an increasing trend with temperature and density was observed, as well as a decreasing trend with liquid water content and initial snow depth. Although modeling assumptions and limitations regarding data and the calibration procedure should be kept in mind, these trends are worth noting, allowing avalanche simulations to be refined to take into account prevailing weather and snow conditions.
The evaluation of avalanche release depths constitutes a great challenge for risk assessment in mountainous areas. This study focuses on slab avalanches, which generally result from the rupture of a weak layer underlying a cohesive slab. We use the finite-element code Cast3M to build a mechanical model of the slab/weak-layer system, taking into account two key ingredients for the description of avalanche release: weak-layer heterogeneity and stress redistribution via slab elasticity. The system is loaded by increasing the slope angle until rupture. We first examine the cases of one single and two interacting weak spots in the weak layer, in order to validate the model. We then study the case of heterogeneous weak layers represented through Gaussian distributions of the cohesion with a spherical spatial covariance. Several simulations for different realizations of weak-layer heterogeneity are carried out and the influence of slab depth and heterogeneity correlation length on avalanche release angle distributions is analyzed. We show, in particular, a heterogeneity smoothing effect caused by slab elasticity. Finally, this mechanically based probabilistic model is coupled with extreme snowfall distributions. A sensitivity analysis of the predicted distributions enables us to determine the values of mechanical parameters that provide the best fit to field data.
This is a report of a fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory which took place during the Paris (France) attack of November 13th, 2015. A young man, trying to protect his girlfriend, interfered between her and a shooter. He had been wounded in the posterior compartment of the thigh. The bullet penetrated him and, instead of exiting, rebound against his Smartphone, which was in the front pocket of his pants. Thanks to that, the missile bullet did not injure his girlfriend but ended its trajectory in the fat tissue of his thigh.
ThabouillotO, PerrierP, RocheNC, AgardD, BarbierO, MartinG, ViantE, LeclereJB. A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket. Prehosp Disaster Med, 2016;31(3):343–345.
This chapter brings together all the previous ones. Based on the detailed presentation and analysis of the MRV requirements of so many different carbon pricing and management mechanisms – hereafter “carbon pricing mechanisms,” it synthesizes and compares how they answered to the five cross-cutting questions identified in the general introduction to the book:
• What are the MRV requirements?
• What are the costs for entities to meet these requirements?
• Is a flexible trade-off between requirements and costs allowed?
• Is requirements stringency adapted to the amount of emissions at stake (materiality)?
• What is the balance between comparability and information relevance?
MRV requirements across schemes
The first cross-cutting question – what are the MRV requirements? – is too large to be answered in a synthetic way. This section thus focuses on two components of this question that have a major impact on MRV costs: requirements pertaining to third-party verification and those pertaining to monitoring uncertainty.
Verification requirements are broadly similar across the board
Most carbon pricing mechanisms impose a verification of the reports by an independent third party. Verification requirements are broadly similar across carbon pricing mechanisms:
• the third party must be accredited by a regulator for GHG emissions audits and this accreditation tends to be sector-specific;
• the third party must assess whether the methods used and the reporting format comply with the relevant guidelines;
• the third party must assess the accuracy, i.e., the absence of bias, of the reported figures;
• the regulator is allowed to question the opinion of the auditor, but seldom does so;• the third party tends to be paid directly by the verified entity. Although this creates a potential conflict of interest, the risk of losing the accreditation is a much stronger incentive and keeps auditors from being complacent with their client (Cormier and Bellassen, 2013).
To examine the association of total animal protein intake and protein derived from different dietary sources (meat; fish and shellfish; eggs; milk products) with global and abdominal obesity among adults in Luxembourg.
Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between animal protein intake (as a percentage of total energy intake) and global obesity (BMI≥30·0 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women), after controlling for potential confounders.
Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.
The study population was derived from a national cross-sectional stratified sample of 1152 individuals aged 18–69 years, recruited between November 2007 and January 2009.
There was an independent positive association between total animal protein intake and both global (OR=1·18; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·25) and abdominal obesity (OR=1·14; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·20) after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, physical activity and intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, fibre, and fruit and vegetables. Protein intakes from meat, fish and shellfish were positively associated with global and abdominal obesity with further adjustment for vegetal protein and other sources of animal-derived protein (all P<0·01). Protein derived from eggs or milk products was unrelated to global or abdominal obesity.
Our findings suggest that protein derived from animal sources, in particular from meat, fish and shellfish, may be associated with increased risk of both global and abdominal obesity among presumably healthy adults in Luxembourg. These findings suggest that lower animal protein intakes may be important for maintenance of healthy body weight.
The authors present the technological routes used to build planar and vertical gate all-around (GAA) field-effect transistors (FETs) using both Si and SiGe nanowires (NWs) and the electrical performances of the as-obtained components. Planar FETs are characterized in back gate configuration and exhibit good behavior such as an ION/IOFF ratio up to 106. Hysteretic behavior and sub-threshold slope values with respect to surface and oxide interface trap densities are discussed. Vertical devices using Si NWs show good characteristics at the state of the art with ION/IOFF ratio close to 106 and sub-threshold slope around 125 mV/decade while vertical SiGe devices also obtained with the same technological processes, present an ION/IOFF ratio from 103 to 104but with poor dynamics which can be explained by the high interface traps density.
The international Araucaria Project aims to provide an improved local calibration of the extragalactic distance scale out to distances of a few Megaparsecs. We present a brief, up-to-date review of different results and ongoing projects to (i) better understand the Baade–Wesselink projection factor used in distance determinations based on Cepheids, and (ii) improve the eclipsing-binary technique of distance determination using CHARA/VEGA interferometric observations.
The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of adults meeting national recommendations for food and nutrient intake and to identify the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural factors that may contribute to weaken dietary compliance. ORISCAV-LUX is a cross-sectional study that took place in Luxembourg (2007–8). A representative stratified random sample of 1352 adults aged 18–69 years participated in the nationwide cardiovascular health survey. A FFQ was used to estimate food intake. Radar charts were built to compare graphically the compliance of the participants with different key dietary guidelines on the same set of axes. The thirteen food- and nutrient-based recommendations were scored and summed to create a recommendation compliance index (range − 0·5 to 14). Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors contributing to poor dietary compliance. Several food- and nutrient-based guidelines were insufficiently respected compared with others. The greatest gaps occurred in the adherence to grain and dairy product consumption guidelines, as well as to total fat and notably to SFA recommendations. Age, country of birth, economic status, smoking status and subject's awareness of the importance of balanced meals emerged as independently associated with weak dietary compliance. Obese subjects conformed more to dietary recommendations compared with normal-weight subjects. The findings underscore the need for specific nutrition education messages along with targeted interventions. Efforts should be continued to increase population awareness of the importance of a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet.
The purpose of the present research was to investigate the epidemiological profile of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to explore its potential dietary, behavioural and socio-economic determinants among European adults residing in Luxembourg.
European adults aged 18–69 years residing in Luxembourg.
A total of 1349 Europid adults, who participated in the ORISCAV-LUX survey, were included in the study. The prevalence of MetS was estimated according to the Revised-Adult Treatment Panel (R-ATPIII) criteria. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the dietary, behavioural and socio-economic factors independently associated with MetS.
The overall prevalence of MetS was 24·7 % with significant gender difference (18·5 % for women v. 30·8 % for men, P < 0·0001). Age, male gender, primary level of education, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes and hypertension and inadequate protein intake were identified as significant determinants of MetS, after adjusting for other socio-economic, family medical history and lifestyle factors.
MetS is a common condition among Europid adults in Luxembourg and increases dramatically with age, in both genders. Several dietary, socio-economic and behavioural factors explain the disparity observed. These findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive approach to MetS encompassing dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic aspects, both in clinical and community settings.
A study of the electrical performances of AlInN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) on SiC substrates is presented in this paper. Four different wafers with different technological and epitaxial processes were characterized. Thanks to intensive characterizations as pulsed-IV, [S]-parameters, and load-pull measurements from S to Ku bands, it is demonstrated here that AlInN/GaN HEMTs show excellent power performances and constitute a particularly interesting alternative to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, especially for high-frequency applications beyond the X band. The measured transistors with 250 nm gate lengths from different wafers delivered in continuous wave (cw): 10.8 W/mm with 60% associated power added efficiency (PAE) at 3,5 GHz, 6.6 W/mm with 39% associated PAE at 10.24 GHz, and 4.2 W/mm with 43% associated PAE at 18 GHz.
Amorphous LaAlO3 high-k oxide was grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor on p-Si(001) using a thin γ-Al2O3 epitaxied buffer layer. Interfaces were free of SiO2 or silicates and remained abrupt despite the high temperature used for annealing, as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed. Electrical measurements performed on as-deposited samples revealed a dielectric constant value close to that of the bulk, small equivalent oxide thickness and low density of interface states. But some negative charges were present, leading to a flat band voltage shift. Post deposition annealing with forming gas can correct this effect.
Using both β-diketone and malonamide organosilane derivatives and silica Si-HIPE macro-mesocellular foams (acronym refers to the High Internal Phase Emulsion process), organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) with chelating functionality have been synthesized. The organic functionalities have been anchored to the silica porous networks by both a two-steps grafting method, relating to grafted gOrgano-Si(HIPE), and a one-step co-condensation process, relating to Organo-Si(HIPE). The loading of monoliths by lanthanides was performed by impregnation of an europium (III) salt in solution, leading to a new Eu3+@(g)Organo-Si(HIPE) hybrid foams series. The resulting materials have been thoroughly characterized via a large set of techniques such as SEM, TEM, SAXS, mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption, FTIR and 29Si CP MAS NMR. Luminescence behavior of this Eu3+@Organo-Si(HIPE) series was also studied and the effects of environment and europium concentration will be discussed.
This work reports on the epitaxial growth of crystalline high-k Gd2O3 on Si (111) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) for CMOS gate application. Epitaxial Gd2O3 films of different thicknesses have been deposited on Si (111) between 650°C~750°C. Electrical characterizations reveal that the sample grown at the optimal temperature (700°C) presents an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 0.73nm with a leakage current density of 3.6×10-2 A/cm2 at |Vg-VFB|=1V. Different Post deposition Annealing (PDA) treatments have been performed for the samples grown under optimal condition. The Gd2O3 films exhibit good stability and the PDA process can effectively reduce the defect density in the oxide layer, which results in higher performances of the Gd2O3/Si (111) capacitor.
Recent studies on specific language impairment (SLI) have suggested that language deficits are directly associated with poor procedural learning abilities. Findings from our previous work are contrary to this hypothesis; we found that children with SLI were able to learn eight-element-long sequences as fast and as accurately as children with normal language (NL) on a serial reaction time (SRT) task. A probabilistic rather than a deterministic SRT paradigm was used in the current study to explore procedural learning in children with SLI to mimic real conditions of language learning. Fifteen children with or without SLI were compared on an SRT task including a probabilistic eight-element-long sequence. Results show that children with SLI were able to learn this sequence as fast and as accurately as children with NL, and that similar sequence-specific learning was observed in both groups. These results are novel and suggest that children with SLI do not display global procedural system deficits. (JINS, 2011, 17, 336–343)
Predicting the dynamic behavior of laminated rotors in bending requires the
identification of the bending rigidity of the laminated core. An identification of
constitutive properties is proposed on the rotor at rest, which is a first step for
rotordynamics prediction. Modal parameters predicted and measured are included in a
functional based on a hybrid Rayleigh quotient and combined with the Guyan method, the
master degrees of freedom corresponding to the measurement points. The laminated core
rigidity is extracted through a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization.