A panel of immunologically and biochemically defined monoclonal antibody probes has been used in conjunction with immunocytochemical techniques to localize target antigens in sections of different life-cycle stages of Trichinella spiralis. Monoclonals that immunoprecipitate surface components from adult worms, show reactivity with the surface but not with internal tissues of sectioned parasites. Reagents that immunoprecipitate radio-isotope labelled stage-specific surface components of muscle-stage larvae, however, react with the stichosome and gut lining of sectioned larvae, as well as with the surface. Monoclonal antibody probes that do not stain the surfaces of live, intact muscle larvae in immunofluorescence assays, but which immunoprecipitate solubilized surface glycoproteins, also show reactivity with cuticular and stichosomal antigens of sectioned larvae. The more powerful resolution provided by electron microscopy has localized the surface antigens to the epicuticle and the intestinal antigens to the brush-border microvilli. Of particular interest was the finding that antigens of muscle-stage larvae, known to confer protection upon recipient mice, also exist in the stichosome of adult parasites. This observation may shed some light on the fact that mice immunized with antigens from muscle-stage larvae show, in addition to reduced muscle larva burden, accelerated expulsion of adult worms. The implications of these data for stage specificity of immune responses to trichinosis are discussed.