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In-patients in crisis report poor experiences of mental healthcare not conducive to recovery. Concerns include coercion by staff, fear of assault from other patients, lack of therapeutic opportunities and limited support. There is little high-quality evidence on what is important to patients to inform recovery-focused care.
To conduct a systematic review of published literature, identifying key themes for improving experiences of in-patient mental healthcare.
A systematic search of online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL) for primary research published between January 2000 and January 2016. All study designs from all countries were eligible. A qualitative analysis was undertaken and study quality was appraised. A patient and public reference group contributed to the review.
Studies (72) from 16 countries found four dimensions were consistently related to significantly influencing in-patients' experiences of crisis and recovery-focused care: the importance of high-quality relationships; averting negative experiences of coercion; a healthy, safe and enabling physical and social environment; and authentic experiences of patient-centred care. Critical elements for patients were trust, respect, safe wards, information and explanation about clinical decisions, therapeutic activities, and family inclusion in care.
A number of experiences hinder recovery-focused care and must be addressed with the involvement of staff to provide high-quality in-patient services. Future evaluations of service quality and development of practice guidance should embed these four dimensions.
Declaration of interest
K.B. is editor of British Journal of Psychiatry and leads a national programme (Synergi Collaborative Centre) on patient experiences driving change in services and inequalities.
The DSM-5 definition of bipolar disorder elevates increased activity or energy as a cardinal symptom (alongside mood changes) for mania and hypomania (‘hypo/mania’). The ICD-10 likewise requires increases in activity and energy (alongside mood) for hypo/mania, as well as decreases for bipolar depression. Using bipolar disorder as an example, we propose that, when diagnostic criteria are revised, instruments used to measure clinical course and treatment response may need revisiting. Here, we highlight that the ‘gold-standard’ symptom rating scales for hypo/mania and depression were developed in an era when abnormalities of mood were viewed as the cardinal symptom of bipolar disorder. We contend that archetypal measures fail to give proportionate weighting to activity or energy, undermining their utility in monitoring bipolar disorder and treatment response in clinical and research practice.
Declarations of interest
J.S. and G.M. are members of mMARCH, (Motor Activity Research Consortium for Health), which is led by Dr Kathleen Merikangas, National Institute for Mental Health. J.S. reports being a visiting professor at Diderot University, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology and The University of Sydney; receiving grant funding from the UK Medical Research Council and from the UK Research for Patient Benefit programme; and receiving a personal fee from Janssen-Cilag for a non-promotional talk on sleep problems.
Implementation of high-quality, dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) is critical to improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, despite some studies demonstrating the use of a metronome in a stand-alone setting, no research has yet demonstrated the effectiveness of a metronome tool in improving DA-CPR in the context of a realistic 911 call or using instructions that have been tested in real-world emergency calls.
Use of the metronome tool will increase the proportion of callers able to perform CPR within the target rate without affecting depth.
The prospective, randomized, controlled study involved simulated 911 cardiac arrest calls made by layperson-callers and handled by certified emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) at four locations in Salt Lake City, Utah USA. Participants were randomized into two groups. In the experimental group, layperson-callers received CPR pre-arrival instructions with metronome assistance. In the control group, layperson-callers received only pre-arrival instructions. The primary outcome measures were correct compression rate (counts per minute [cpm]) and depth (mm).
A total of 148 layperson-callers (57.4% assigned to experimental group) participated in the study. There was a statistically significant association between the number of participants who achieved the target compression rate and experimental study group (P=.003), and the experimental group had a significantly higher median compression rate than the control group (100 cpm and 89 cpm, respectively; P=.013). Overall, there was no significant correlation between compression rate and depth.
An automated software metronome tool is effective in getting layperson-callers to achieve the target compression rate and compression depth in a realistic DA-CPR scenario.
Scott G, Barron T, Gardett I, Broadbent M, Downs H, Devey L, Hinterman EJ, Clawson J, Olola C. Can a software-based metronome tool enhance compression rate in a realistic 911 call scenario without adversely impacting compression depth for dispatcher-assisted CPR? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):399–405
Inflammation of the mammary gland following bacterial infection, commonly known as mastitis, affects all mammalian species. Although the aetiology and epidemiology of mastitis in the dairy cow are well described, the genetic factors mediating resistance to mammary gland infection are not well known, due in part to the difficulty in obtaining robust phenotypic information from sufficiently large numbers of individuals. To address this problem, an experimental mammary gland infection experiment was undertaken, using a Friesian-Jersey cross breed F2 herd. A total of 604 animals received an intramammary infusion of Streptococcus uberis in one gland, and the clinical response over 13 milkings was used for linkage mapping and genome-wide association analysis. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) was detected on bovine chromosome 11 for clinical mastitis status using micro-satellite and Affymetrix 10 K SNP markers, and then exome and genome sequence data used from the six F1 sires of the experimental animals to examine this region in more detail. A total of 485 sequence variants were typed in the QTL interval, and association mapping using these and an additional 37 986 genome-wide markers from the Illumina SNP50 bovine SNP panel revealed association with markers encompassing the interleukin-1 gene cluster locus. This study highlights a region on bovine chromosome 11, consistent with earlier studies, as conferring resistance to experimentally induced mammary gland infection, and newly prioritises the IL1 gene cluster for further analysis in genetic resistance to mastitis.
Early recognition of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can increase the patient’s likelihood of survival. As the first point of contact for patients accessing medical care through emergency services, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) represent the earliest potential identification point for AMIs. The objective of the study was to determine how AMI cases were coded and prioritized at the dispatch point, and also to describe the distribution of these cases by patient age and gender.
No studies currently exist that describe the EMD’s ability to correctly triage AMIs into Advanced Life Support (ALS) response tiers.
The retrospective descriptive study utilized data from three sources: emergency medical dispatch, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and emergency departments (EDs)/hospitals. The primary outcome measure was the distributions of AMI cases, as categorized by Chief Complaint Protocol, dispatch priority code and level, and patient age and gender. The EMS and ED/hospital data came from the Utah Department of Health (UDoH), Salt Lake City, Utah. Dispatch data came from two emergency communication centers covering the entirety of Salt Lake City and Salt Lake County, Utah.
Overall, 89.9% of all the AMIs (n=606) were coded in one of the three highest dispatch priority levels, all of which call for ALS response (called CHARLIE, DELTA, and ECHO in the studied system). The percentage of AMIs significantly increased for patients aged 35 years and older, and varied significantly by gender, dispatch level, and chief complaint. A total of 85.7% of all deaths occurred among patients aged 55 years and older, and 88.9% of the deaths were handled in the ALS-recommended priority levels.
Acute myocardial infarctions may present as a variety of clinical symptoms, and the study findings demonstrated that more than one-half were identified as having chief complaints of Chest Pain or Breathing Problems at the dispatch point, followed by Sick Person and Unconscious/Fainting. The 35-year age cutoff for assignment to higher priority levels is strongly supported. The Falls and Sick Person Protocols offer opportunities to capture atypical AMI presentations.
ClawsonJJ, GardettI, ScottG, FivazC, BarronT, BroadbentM, OlolaC. Hospital-Confirmed Acute Myocardial Infarction: Prehospital Identification Using the Medical Priority Dispatch System. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):29–35.
This paper examines the coronial manual as a technique of occupying office in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The manual guided coroners in the performance of their duties, obligations and responsibilities. It was preoccupied with questions of technical knowledge, operational processes and administrative procedure. The language of office that characterised coronial treatises prior to the eighteenth century was gradually supplemented in the nineteenth century by the discourse of bureaucracy. This paper argues that the guidebook professionalised the office of coroner in Australia by setting out procedures, forms and rituals for assuming responsibility for the dead. It also provided advice to coroners for devoting themselves to a vocation in the public service. The paper thus traces historical shifts in the technology of the coronial manual in British colonies and examines how a bureaucratic logic of the coroner's office affected the way in which coroners pursued justice during the death investigation process.
The long history of suicide as a criminal offence still has a significant contemporary effect on how it is perceived, conceptualised and adjudged. This is particularly the case within countries where suicide is largely determined within a coronial system, such as Australia, the UK and the US. This paper details the outcomes of a study involving semi-structured interviews with coroners both in England and Australia, as well as observations at inquests. It focuses around the widely held contention that the suicide rates produced within these coronial systems are underestimations of anywhere between 15 to 50 per cent. The results of these interviews suggest that there are three main reasons for this systemic underestimation. The first reflects the legacy of suicide as a criminal offence, resulting in the highest standard of proof for findings of suicide in the UK, and a continuing stigma attached to families of the deceased. The second is the considerable pressure brought to bear upon coroners by the family of the deceased, who, because of that stigma, commonly agitate for any finding other than that of suicide. The third involves the rise of ‘therapeutic jurisprudence’, wherein coroners take on the responsibility of the emotional well-being of the grieving families, which in turn affects the likelihood of reaching a finding of suicide. The conclusions drawn by the paper are also twofold: first – with respect to the stigma of suicide – it will take a lot more than simple decriminalisation to change deeply held social perceptions within the community. Second, given that suicide prevention programmes and policies are based on such deeply questionable statistics, targeted changes to coronial legislation and practice would appear to be required.
This paper examines the role of coroners in investigating and reporting on cases of death after police contact (DAPC) in England and Wales. It considers how Article 2 (the right to life) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) has affected coronial processes and practices. It argues that the effects of Article 2 represent an evolutionary shift in accountability processes surrounding cases of DAPC in England and Wales, but that this shift has in turn been mediated by aspects of institutional structure in the coronial system. It discusses how this shift demonstrates the dynamic relationship between the coronial system, state and society and how this has continued to evolve as a result of external demands.
Lord Neuberger describes open justice as a procedural principle requiring that ‘what goes on in court and what a court decides is open to scrutiny’ (Neuberger, 2011). The prime rationale given for this principle is that it is a safety check on procedural fairness. Such a conception of open justice applies on only a superficial level in inquests into use-of-force deaths at the hands of the state. This paper examines the practice of, and rationales behind, opening up use-of-force deaths at the hands of the state to scrutiny through inquests. They suggest a primarily intrinsic rather than instrumental link between openness and inquests’ purposes, which requires a reframing of traditional conceptions of open justice in this context. It is further argued that recognition theory can provide the normative link between openness and justice in these circumstances – a link that is implicit in the term ‘open justice’ but rarely explored in inquests.
Death investigation and coronial practices have undergone significant social, political and legal scrutiny in recent years. A wave of coronial reform has occurred across jurisdictions, including in the United Kingdom (UK), Australia, Canada and New Zealand, with a concomitant focus on the adequacy of death investigation law and policy. Taking key coronial developments in the UK and Australia as its starting point, this paper explores a legal jurisdiction undergoing immense legal and policy reform to illustrate why coronial law and practice is of increasing scholarly interest. It begins by tracing the contentious landscape of UK coronial law reform, which has also resonated internationally, thereafter examining key controversies that refocused attention on the value of the jurisdiction, before discussing contemporary coronial issues including, publicity, human rights and death prevention.
This paper follows collegiality, demonstrating how, as a central value of medically trained coroners, it can shape the content of death investigations and certificates. Drawing on ethnographic evidence from a 16-month-long study of the Office of the Chief Coroner (OCC) of Ontario, Canada, I argue that collegiality is an instrument of trust that both affords investigators tremendous access to information, and severely limits the flow of that information into the public domain that the OCC serves. The paper focuses on in-care death investigations, which are those where the OCC's medically qualified coroners find themselves investigating the quality of care delivered by professional colleagues. I show how professional expertise, experience and collegial values often combine to see instances of poor or even incompetent care dealt with privately (rather than publicly) or referred up the medical (rather than public safety) hierarchy. The burden of my argument is that collegial deference to the autonomy and skills of other physicians tends to see coroners expurgate the death certificates they produce. These expurgations obscure competence issues from public view and reduce the accuracy of the certificates. I close with a discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of medically qualified death investigators, as well as potential adjustments to improve the accuracy of in-care death investigations and certifications.
Using the Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) – a systematic 911 triage process – to identify a large subset of low-acuity patients for secondary nurse triage in the 911 center is a largely unstudied practice in North America. This study examines the ALPHA-level subset of low-acuity patients in the MPDS to determine the suitability of these patients for secondary triage by evaluating vital signs and necessity of lights-and-siren transport, as determined by attending Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance crews.
The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical status of MPDS ALPHA-level (low-acuity) patients, as determined by on-scene EMS crews’ patient care records, in two US agencies. A secondary objective was to determine which ALPHA-level codes are suitable candidates for secondary triage by a trained Emergency Communication Nurse (ECN).
In this retrospective study, one full year (2013) of both dispatch data and EMS patient records data, associated with all calls coded at the ALPHA-level (low-acuity) in the dispatch protocol, were collected. The primary outcome measure was the number and percentage of ALPHA-level codes categorized as low-acuity, moderate-acuity, high-acuity, and critical using four common vital signs to assign these categories: systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse rate (PR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). Vital sign data were obtained from ambulance crew electronic patient care records (ePCRs). The secondary endpoint was the number and percentage of ALPHA-level codes that received a “hot” (lights-and-siren) transport.
Out of 19,300 cases, 16,763 (86.9%) were included in the final analysis, after excluding cases from health care providers and those with missing data. Of those, 89% of all cases did not have even one vital sign indicator of unstable patient status (high or critical vital sign). Of all cases, only 1.1% were transported lights-and-siren.
With the exception of the low-acuity, ALPHA-level seizure cases, the ALPHA-level patients are suitable to transfer for secondary triage in a best-practices, accredited, emergency medical dispatch center that utilizes the MPDS at very high compliance rates. The secondary nurse triage process should identify the few at-risk patients that exist in the low-acuity calls.
ScottG, ClawsonJ, FivazMC, McQueenJ, GardettMI, SchultzB, YoungquistS, OlolaCHO. Using On-scene EMS Responders’ Assessment and Electronic Patient Care Records to Evaluate the Suitability of EMD-triaged, Low-acuity Calls for Secondary Nurse Triage in 911 Centers. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(1):46–57.
With the large improvement in effective area of Astro-H's micro-calorimeter soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS) over grating spectrometers, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with good signal to noise will become more commonly available, also for faint and extended sources. This will result in a range of spectral lines being resolved for the first time in celestial sources, especially in the Fe region. However, a large number of X-ray line energies in the atomic databases are known to a lesser accuracy than that expected for Astro-H/SXS, or have no known uncertainty at all. To benchmark the available calculations, we have therefore started to measure reference energies of K-shell transition in L-shell ions for astrophysically relevant elements in the range 11≤ Z ≤ 28 (Na to Ni), using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with the NASA/GSFC EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS). The ECS has a resolution of ~5 e V, i.e., similar to Astro-H/SXS and Chandra/HETG. A comparison to crystal spectra of lower charge states of sulfur with ~0.6 e V resolution shows that the analysis of spectra taken at ECS resolution allows to determine the transition energies of the strongest components.