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The integration of oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converters into a coastal structure (breakwater, jetty, pier, etc.) or, more generally, their installation along the coast is an effective way to increase the accessibility of wave power exploitation. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed based on the linear potential flow theory and eigenfunction matching method to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of an array of OWCs installed along a vertical straight coast. The chamber of each OWC consists of a hollow vertical circular cylinder, which is half embedded in the wall. The OWC chambers in the theoretical model may have different sizes, i.e. different values of the radius, wall thickness and submergence. At the top of each chamber, a Wells turbine is installed to extract power. The effects of the Wells turbine together with the air compressibility are taken into account as a linear power take-off system. The hydrodynamic and wave power extraction performance of the multiple coast-integrated OWCs is compared with that of a single offshore/coast-integrated OWC and of multiple offshore OWCs. More specifically, we analyse the role of the incident wave direction, chamber size (i.e. radius, wall thickness and submergence), spacing between OWCs and number of OWCs by means of the present theoretical model. It is shown that wave power extraction from the coast-integrated OWCs for a certain range of wave conditions can be significantly enhanced due to both the constructive array effect and the constructive coast effect.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer globally. CRC risk is increased by obesity, and by its lifestyle determinants notably physical inactivity and poor nutrition. Obesity results in increased inflammation and oxidative stress which cause genomic damage and contribute to mitochondrial dysregulation and CRC risk. The mitochondrial dysfunction associated with obesity includes abnormal mitochondrial size, morphology and reduced autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of key mitochondrial regulators. Although there is strong evidence that increased adiposity increases CRC risk, evidence for the effects of intentional weight loss on CRC risk is much more limited. In model systems, energy depletion leads to enhanced mitochondrial integrity, capacity, function and biogenesis but the effects of obesity and weight loss on mitochondria in the human colon are not known. We are using weight loss following bariatric surgery to investigate the effects of altered adiposity on mitochondrial structure and function in human colonocytes. In summary, there is strong and consistent evidence in model systems and more limited evidence in human subjects that over-feeding and/or obesity result in mitochondrial dysfunction and that weight loss might mitigate or reverse some of these effects.
This paper presents a review of the current status of photodiode array systems adapted for Energy Dispersive EXAFS (EDE) using a synchrotron radiation source. The performance of a conventional Reticon PDA is compared with that of a hybrid CCD. The specification of a new detector system for EDE is discussed in the light of experience gained with current linear detectors.
The use of glancing angles of incidence enables X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to be measured as a function of depth from the surface of a material into the bulk. As x-rays rather than photoelectrons are detected, a UHV environment is not required and instead surfaces and interfaces can be examined under realistic operational conditions. Whilst the reflected beam carries the fine structure of concentrated species in the imaginary part of the refractive index, this is obscured by the contribution from the real part for angles greater than ϕc, the critical angle for total external reflection. Measuring the x-ray fluorescence offers more flexibility, particularly for dilute systems. The use of synchrotron radiation in conjunction with a multi-element Solid State Detector enables impurity loadings down to a few 1019 cm-3 to be measured which for ion implants is equivalent to around half-monolayer coverage at the surface. This sensitivity makes it practical to examine impurities in semiconductors at realistic dopant levels.
Existing Solid State Detector systems exhibit limitations in throughput rate and stability when used with intense synchrotron radiation sources. Recent work on a prototype detector system for Fluorescence EXAFS has allowed evaluation of new techniques, made possible by recent improvements in integrated circuit products. The knowledge gained from this investigation is enabling the design of high-count rate detector systems.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aim of this study is two-fold (1) to include a participatory action research design in the development of a community-based health advocate (HA) training programme which empowers community members to support the Barbados diabetes remission study 2 protocol – a low-calorie intervention for T2DM remission (2) to study the implementation of this programme with in select faith-based organisations (FBOs) which will act as community hubs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Translation was informed using the RE-AIM framework. The target population were members of select FBOs. We assessed the readiness of FBOs to become community hubs in relation to human resources (the HA team must include someone with a clinical degree), infrastructure capacity (a private room for interviews) and the perspective (knowledge and attitude) of the FBO leadership to both the training and diabetes remission programmes. An open recruitment for HAs was made to the FBO membership and all who responded were accepted to the programme; which consisted of 8 weeks of face to face sessions inclusive of lectures and practical demonstrations and exercises specific to NCDs e.g. assessment of basic clinical parameters, ethics and nutrition. This was followed by a simulation exercise and a formal objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). HAs will participate in focus groups aimed at exploring the barriers and facilitators to the use of social media as a support system; this will be followed by participatory design workshops where the HAs will design support systems, inclusive of social media support, to assist participants in the diabetes remission intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: All three FBOs that were approached responded favourably and the programme was described as ‘necessary’ and ‘timely’ by the leadership. The FBOs were assessed and found to be ready. Thirty-eight persons signed up for the programme (more than the 21 we anticipated); 31 (82%) attended at least 1 session and 29 completed the training; this indicates that implementation in the community is feasible. All who completed the programme attained an overall passing grade indicating the effectiveness of, and fidelity to the training. Initial feedback on the programme from HAs and volunteers indicates that it was acceptable. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This community-based training programme was successful in terms of reach, as both the FBO and the individual HA responded favourably; and effectiveness as measured by the expanded skill set of the HA. Initial feedback suggests that implementation of the programme is feasible in the community and acceptable to the HAs. Although this model focusses on diabetes remission utilising FBOs as hubs, it can be easily adapted to other NCDs e.g. hypertension and mental health; other disciplines e.g. surveillance; and other communities e.g. workplaces, homeless shelters.
The impact of losing a limb in military service extends well beyond initial recovery and rehabilitation, with long-term consequences and challenges requiring health-care commitments across the lifecourse. This paper presents a systematic review of the current state of knowledge regarding the long-term impact of ageing and limb-loss in military veterans. Key databases were systematically searched including: ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, PsycArticles/PsychInfo, ProQuest Psychology and ProQuest Sociology Journals, and SPORTSDiscus. Empirical studies which focused on the long-term impact of limb-loss and/or health-care requirements in veterans were included. The search process revealed 30 papers relevant for inclusion. These papers focused broadly on four themes: (a) long-term health outcomes, prosthetics use and quality of life; (b) long-term psycho-social adaptation and coping with limb-loss; (c) disability and identity; and (d) estimating the long-term costs of care and prosthetic provision. Findings present a compelling case for ensuring the long-term care needs and costs of rehabilitation for older limbless veterans are met. A dearth of information on the lived experience of limb-loss and the needs of veterans’ families calls for further research to address these important issues.
Saturn's moon Enceladus has vents emerging from a sub-surface ocean, offering unique probes into the liquid environment. These vents drain into the larger neutral torus in orbit around Saturn. We present a methanol (CH3OH) detection observed with IRAM 30-m from 2008 along the line-of-sight through Saturn's E-ring. Additionally, we also present supporting observations from the Herschel public archive of water (ortho-H2O; 1669.9 GHz) from 2012 at a similar elongation and line-of-sight. The CH3OH 5(1,1)-4(1,1) transition was detected at 5.9σ confidence. The line has 0.43 km s−1 width and is offset by +8.1 km s−1 in the moon's reference frame. Radiative transfer models allow for gas cloud dimensions from 1750 km up to the telescope beam diameter ~73 000 km. Taking into account the CH3OH lifetime against solar photodissociation and the redshifted line velocity, there are two possible explanations for the CH3OH emission: methanol is primarily a secondary product of chemical interactions within the neutral torus that: (1) spreads outward throughout the E-ring or (2) originates from a compact, confined gas cloud lagging Enceladus by several km s−1. We find either scenario to be consistent with significant redshifted H2O emission (4σ) measured from the Herschel public archive. The measured CH3OH:H2O abundance (>0.5%) significantly exceeds the observed abundance in the direct vicinity of the vents (~0.01%), suggesting CH3OH is likely chemically processed within the gas cloud with methane (CH4) as its parent species.
Dysregulated physiological stress reactivity has been suggested to impact the development of children and adolescents with important health consequences throughout the life span. Both environmental adversity and genetic predispositions can lead to physiological imbalances in stress systems, which in turn lead to developmental differences. We investigated genetic and environmental contributions to autonomic nervous system reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Furthermore, we tested whether these effects were consistent with the differential susceptibility framework. Composite measures of adverse life events combined with socioeconomic status were constructed. Effects of these adversity scores in interaction with a polygenic score summarizing six genetic variants, which were hypothesized to work as susceptibility factors, were tested on autonomic nervous system measures as indexed by heart rate and heart rate variability. Results showed that carriers of more genetic variants and exposed to high adversity manifested enhanced heart rate variability reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to carriers of fewer genetic variants. Conversely, the stress procedure elicited a more moderate response in these individuals compared to carriers of fewer variants when adversity was low.
Maurice Lagrange was appointed Advocate General in 1953 and retired in 1964. He delivered over 80 Opinions in a period of 10 years, covering a wide range of issues. The first 40 or so Opinions concerned the European Coal and Steel Treaty (ECSC Treaty) exclusively, whilst the remainder covered all three Treaties.
Although, in the history of the European Community, the period 1958 to 1985 will not be remembered for remarkable achievement as far as the freedom to provide transport services is concerned, the nineties have redressed the balance, even though a complete Common Transport Policy (CTP) has not yet been achieved. This paper seeks to summarise the current status of the CTP and to focus on two longstanding problems. These problems are the proposals to finance, and then maintain, transport infrastructures and the debate on the Community’s external competence in the field of transport, particularly sea and air transport. However, an appreciation of what has been achieved in the nineties cannot be done without recalling briefly some of the historical background.
The results of a submillimetre wavelength spectral line survey between 455.1 – 507.4 GHz of the Orion-KL hot cloud core are reported. 254 lines were detected, and are associated with 30 different molecular species or their isotopomeric variants. Apart from the abundant diatomic rotors such as CO and CS, the spectrum is dominated by SO, SO2 and CH3OH and large organic molecules such as (CH3)2O, CH3CN, C2H3CN, C2H5CN and HCOOCH3 which make up ∼ 72% of the total number of lines; unidentified lines ∼ 13%; and other lines the remaining ∼ 15% of the total. Rotational temperatures and column densities derived using standard rotation diagram analysis techniques were found to range from 70 – 600 K, and 1014 – 1017cm2 respectively.