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Rumen protected fats are often included in dairy cow rations in order to increase the energy density of the ration without compromising rumen function. Various studies have examined the effects of protected fats, with some studies reporting an improvement in various fertility parameters (McNamara et al., 2003). This study examined the effect of feeding protected fat (Megalac™) on production parameters, and on the reproductive performance of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.
Disintegration of several ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula demonstrates a mechanism that involves the conversion of a contiguous ice shelf into an expanding plume of ice-shelf fragments that spreads rapidly across the ocean surface. The growth of surface area and energetic expansion are hypothesized to be driven by gravitational potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and break-up. Here we investigate this process using a water tank filled with plastic icebergs scaled to represent a laboratory analogue of an expanding plume of ice-shelf fragments (icebergs). Our experiments suggest that hydrodynamic pressure within the water separating neighbouring icebergs is sufficient to couple the motion when their separation is comparable to the iceberg size. This allows one iceberg’s capsize to initiate a ‘domino-like’ effect, where the entire array will subsequently capsize in the same direction and expand across the water surface. Our experimental results motivate the suggestion that cooperative iceberg hydrodynamics is a process that enhances the expansion of ice-shelf fragment plumes during ice-shelf disintegration.
Following the Norwood palliation, neonates may require an escalation of inotropic and vasoactive support. Arginine Vasopressin may be uniquely useful in supporting this population.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective evaluation of neonates at this institution between November, 2007 and October, 2010 who received Arginine Vasopressin following the Norwood procedure. Data were recorded from the patient records at one hour prior to, and then 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours following Arginine Vasopressin initiation.
We included 28 neonates. The mean dose of Arginine Vasopressin was 0.0005 plus or minus 0.0003 units per kilogram per minute. There was an early response (less than 6 hours) characterised by an 8% increase in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0004), a 100% increase in urine output (p = 0.02), and a 29% decrease in total fluid administration (p = 0.04). The late response (at 24 hours) revealed further increases in systolic blood pressure and urine output as well as a 53% decrease in serum lactate (p = 0.007) and increase in arterial pH from 7.36 to 7.45 (p less than 0.0001). These changes were not accompanied by increases in heart rate or inotrope score.
The initiation of Arginine Vasopressin in post-operative Norwood patients was temporally associated with an improvement in markers of perfusion including systolic blood pressure, urine output, lactate, and pH. Further studies are required to ascertain the efficacy of Arginine Vasopressin in this population.
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