Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) crowding is an intensifying crisis. While input, throughput, and output factors all contribute to crowding, throughput factors are the most dependent on ED staff and process. Diagnostic testing is a fundamental ED process that has not been systematically evaluated. We present a systematic review of interventions designed to reduce ED length of stay (LOS) by optimizing laboratory or imaging turnaround time, or by introducing point-of-care testing (POCT). Methods: We conducted systematic database searches in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials without filters or language restrictions, of all interventions on diagnostic technology that affected ED throughput (PROSPERO:CRD42019125651). Studies were screened by two independent reviewers. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane ROB-2 tools for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute tool for all other study designs. Results: 18 studies met inclusion criteria (Cohen's kappa = 0.69). Study results were not pooled due to high statistical heterogeneity as assessed by chi-squared and I-squared statistics. 12 POCT intervention studies reported LOS changes ranging from -114 to + 8 minutes (-26.8% to + 3.8%), although three were non-significant findings. Four studies that initiated POCT or lab-ordering at triage reported LOS reductions ranging from 22 to 174 minutes, but only one of these, at 29 minutes (16%), was statistically significant. One study of improved laboratory troponin processing reported a LOS reduction of 43 minutes (12.3%). Another, which allowed triage nurses to order ankle x-rays using the Ottawa ankle rules, reported a non-significant LOS reduction of 28 minutes for patients with ankle injuries. LOS improvements reflected the population of patients who underwent the testing modality, rather than overall ED LOS. Seven studies had low risk of bias, 11 studies had some risk of bias, and no studies had high risk of bias (Cohen's kappa = 0.58). Conclusion: Eleven of 18 diagnostic testing studies reported LOS reductions. POCT was the most common intervention type, and usually reduced EDLOS within relevant patient subsets, while triage-initiated testing generally did not. To aid widespread adoption, future research should focus on interrupted time series or RCT designs, and more comprehensive descriptions of the contextual factors affecting implementation of these interventions.