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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Debris-laden ice accretes to the base of Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., from water that supercools while flowing in a distributed drainage system tip the adverse slope of an overdeepening. Frazil ice grows in the water column and forms aggregates, while other ice grows on the glacier sole or on substrate materials. Sediment is trapped by this growing ice, forming stratified debris-laden basal ice. Growth rates of >0.l ma−1 of debris-rich basal ice are possible. The large sediment fluxes that this mechanism allows may have implications for interpretation of the widespread deposits from ice that flowed through other overdeepenings, including Heinrich events and the till sheets south of the Laurentian Great Lakes.
This paper treats a holomorphic self-mapping f: Ω → Ω of a bounded domain Ω in a separable Hilbert space with a fixed point p. In case the domain is convex, we prove an infinite-dimensional version of the Cartan-Carathéodory-Kaup-Wu Theorem. This is basically a rigidity result in the vein of the uniqueness part of the classical Schwarz lemma. The main technique, inspired by an old idea of H. Cartan, is iteration of the mapping f and its derivative. A normality result for holomorphic mappings in the compact-weak-open topology, due to Kim and Krantz, is used.
Despite evidence for the effectiveness of structured psychological
therapies for bipolar disorder no psychological interventions have been
specifically designed to enhance personal recovery for individuals with
recent-onset bipolar disorder.
A pilot study to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a new
intervention, recovery-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT),
designed in collaboration with individuals with recent-onset bipolar
disorder intended to improve clinical and personal recovery outcomes.
A single, blind randomised controlled trial compared treatment as usual
(TAU) with recovery-focused CBT plus TAU (n = 67).
Recruitment and follow-up rates within 10% of pre-planned targets to
12-month follow-up were achieved. An average of 14.15 h (s.d. = 4.21) of
recovery-focused CBT were attended out of a potential maximum of 18 h.
Compared with TAU, recovery-focused CBT significantly improved personal
recovery up to 12-month follow-up (Bipolar Recovery Questionnaire mean
score 310.87, 95% CI 75.00–546.74 (s.e. = 120.34), P =
0.010, d=0.62) and increased time to any mood relapse
during up to 15 months follow-up (χ2 = 7.64,
P<0.006, estimated hazard ratio (HR) = 0.38, 95%
CI 0.18–0.78). Groups did not differ with respect to medication
Recovery-focused CBT seems promising with respect to feasibility and
potential clinical effectiveness. Clinical- and cost-effectiveness now
need to be reliably estimated in a definitive trial.
Using galvanostatic pulse deposition, we studied the factors influencing the quality of electroformed Bi1–xSbx nanowires with respect to composition, crystallinity, and preferred orientation for high thermoelectric performance. Two nonaqueous baths with different Sb salts were investigated. The Sb salts used played a major role in both crystalline quality and preferred orientations. Nanowire arrays electroformed using an SbI3-based chemistry were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation, whereas arrays electroformed from an SbCl3-based chemistry were strongly crystallographically textured with the desired trigonal orientation for optimal thermoelectric performance. From the SbCl3 bath, the electroformed nanowire arrays were optimized to have nanocompositional uniformity, with a nearly constant composition along the nanowire length. Nanowires harvested from the center of the array had an average composition of Bi0.75Sb0.25. However, the nanowire compositions were slightly enriched in Sb in a small region near the edges of the array, with the composition approaching Bi0.70Sb0.30.
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with childhood asthma and atopic disease. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children has reported associations between reduced umbilical cord Fe status and childhood wheeze and eczema; however, follow-up was short and lung function was not measured. In the present study, the associations between maternal Fe status during pregnancy and childhood outcomes in the first 10 years of life were investigated in a subgroup of 157 mother–child pairs from a birth cohort with complete maternal, fetal ultrasound, blood and child follow-up data. Maternal Fe intake was assessed using FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation and Hb concentrations and serum Fe status (ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and TfR-F (transferrin receptor:ferritin) index) were measured at 11 weeks of gestation and at delivery. Maternal Fe intake, Hb concentrations and serum Fe status were found to be not associated with fetal or birth measurements. Unit increases in first-trimester maternal serum TfR concentrations (OR 1·44, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·99) and TfR-F index (OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·82) (i.e. decreasing Fe status) were found to be associated with an increased risk of wheeze, while unit increases in serum ferritin concentrations (i.e. increasing Fe status) were found to be associated with increases in standardised mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) (β 0·25, 95 % CI 0·09, 0·42) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) (β 0·20, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·32) up to 10 years of age. Increasing maternal serum TfR-F index at delivery was found to be associated with an increased risk of atopic sensitisation (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·79). The results of the present study suggest that reduced maternal Fe status during pregnancy is adversely associated with childhood wheeze, lung function and atopic sensitisation, justifying further studies on maternal Fe status and childhood asthma and atopic disease.
Accurate sea-level reconstruction is critical in understanding the drivers of coastal evolution. Inliers of shallow marine limestone and aeolianite are exposed as zeugen (carbonate-capped erosional remnants) on the southern coast of the Arabian/Persian Gulf. These have generally been accepted as evidence of a eustatically driven, last-interglacial relative sea-level highstand preceded by a penultimate glacial-age lowstand. Instead, recent optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating suggests a last glacial age for these deposits, requiring >100 m of uplift since the last glacial maximum in order to keep pace with eustatic sea-level rise and implying the need for a wholesale revision of tectonic, stratigraphic and sea-level histories of the Gulf. These two hypotheses have radically different implications for regional neotectonics and land–sea distribution histories. Here we test these hypotheses using OSL dating of the zeugen formations. These new ages are remarkably consistent with earlier interpretations of the formations being last interglacial or older in age, showing that tectonic movements are negligible and eustatic sea-level variations are responsible for local sea-level changes in the Gulf. The cause of the large age differences between recent studies is unclear, although it appears related to large differences in the measured accumulated dose in different OSL samples.
Achieving control of crystalline quality is a key barrier to developing thermoelectric (TE) nanowires. We show that the structural properties of free-standing Bi2(Te.97Se.03)3 nanowire arrays on substrates can be improved by postdeposition annealing. Nanowires were electrochemically deposited into anodized aluminum oxide nanopore templates formed directly on metallized Si(100). The templates were chemically removed prior to annealing in a 3% H2/Ar environment to prevent microcrack formation that results from thermal stresses. Grain sizes grew exponentially with annealing temperature until reaching the full 75-nm diameter of the nanowires at 300 °C; growth was linear above this temperature since grains could grow further only in the axial directions. Crystalline quality, along with the development of the preferred (110) orientation for optimal TE properties, improved with increasing annealing temperature between 200 and 400 °C. However, continued loss of Te composition with annealing led to a mixed phase of Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 at 500 °C.
Bullying in schools continues to be a problem despite the best efforts of educators, researchers, and clinicians. Of most concern for the present study is that some children experience long-term victimisation by their peers. To improve our understanding in this area, the phenomenology of being bullied over the course of the school year was investigated with three participants aged from 11 to 15 years. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Two superordinate themes with associated subthemes were identified: ‘experience of victimisation’ (‘being different’, ‘dynamics of bullying’, ‘school’, and ‘social network’) and ‘strategies’ (‘help-seeking’, ‘behaviour’, ‘response to bullying’, ‘personal coping’, and ‘solutions’). Through these interviews some of the factors that may contribute to long-term peer victimisation were identified. The implications of these results for prevention and intervention are discussed.
EPA or fish oil supplementation has been suggested as treatments for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to their lipid-lowering and potential insulin-sensitising effects. We investigated the effects of supplementation with EPA (1 g/kg body weight per d) or fish oil (3 g/kg body weight per d) on the age of onset of T2DM and circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, leptin and adiponectin in UC Davis (UCD)-T2DM rats. Animals were divided into three groups starting at 1 month of age: control, EPA and fish oil. All the animals were followed until diabetes onset or for up to 12 months of age. Monthly fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, lipids, hormones and C-reactive protein (CRP). Neither EPA nor fish oil delayed the onset of T2DM or altered fasting plasma glucose, insulin, CRP, adiponectin or leptin concentrations. The groups did not differ in energy intake or body weight. Fish oil treatment lowered fasting plasma TAG concentrations by 39 (sd 7) % (P < 0·001) and EPA lowered fasting plasma NEFA concentrations by 23 (sd 5) % (P < 0·05) at 4 months of age compared with the control group. EPA and fish oil lowered fasting plasma cholesterol concentrations at 4 months of age by 19 (sd 4) and 22 (sd 4) % compared with the control group, respectively (both P < 0·01). In conclusion, EPA and fish oil supplementation lowers circulating lipid concentrations, but does not delay the onset of T2DM in UCD-T2DM rats.
The integration of geomorphic mapping, soil stratigraphy, and radiocarbon dating of alluvial deposits offers insight to the timing, magnitude, and paleoclimatic context of Holocene fan sedimentation near Yuma, Arizona. Mapping of 3400 km2 indicates about 10% of the area aggraded in the late Holocene and formed regionally extensive alluvial fan and alluvial plain cut-and-fill terraces. Fan deposits have weakly developed gravelly soils and yielded a date of 3200–2950 cal yr BP from carbonized wood. Alluvial plain deposits have weakly developed buried sandy soils and provided a date of 2460–2300 cal yr BP from a terrestrial snail shell. Precipitation records were analyzed to form historical analogues to the late Holocene aggradation and to consider the role of climatic variability and extreme hydrologic events as drivers of the sedimentation. The historical precipitation record indicates numerous above-average events correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) in the region, but lacks any significant reactivation of alluvial fan surfaces. The timing of aggradation from 3200 to 2300 cal yr BP correlates well with other paleoclimatic proxy records in the southwestern U.S. and eastern Pacific region, which indicate an intensification of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic pattern and rapid climate change during this period.