To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Since the beginning of the Reconciliation and Social Justice Project in 1996, AustLII has sought to contribute to the process of reconciliation through the provision of relevant legal and cultural information relating to indigenous people. Two important components of the project have been collecting material as well as making it as accessible as possible to as many people as possible. Another significant part of the Reconciliation and Social Justice Project has been connecting remote Aboriginal communities to the Internet and providing training to them in its use. The history and achievements of the project are set out here and some consideration is given to future directions for the various aspects of the project.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) is a multifunctional ubiquitin binding and editing enzyme that regulates inflammation. Genetic studies have implicated polymorphisms within the TNFAIP3 locus to the development of numerous immune-related diseases. This study evaluated the frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) within the exonic regions of the TNFAIP3 gene and an associated point mutation from the Illumina array among a predominantly Hispanic cohort.
Genomic DNA was obtained from 721 participants and sequencing of all TNFAIP3 exons and an intergenic point mutation (rs6920220) was performed. In-vitro functional assessment was performed by transfecting mutated TNFAIP3 constructs into TNFAIP3 knockout cells containing the NF-kB luciferase reporter and stimulating with TNFα. Comparative statistics were performed with Student’s t-test for continuous variables and chi-squared test for categorical variables.
Sequencing revealed two missense SNPs, rs146534657:A>G and rs2230926:T>G, both within exon 3 of TNFAIP3, which encodes the protein’s deubiquitinating enzymatic domain. Frequencies of all three point mutations differed significantly across racial groups (χ2-test, P = 0.014 to P < 0.001). Compared to Caucasians, rs146534657:A>G was overrepresented among Hispanics (odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] 4.05 [1.24−13.18]), and rs2230926:T>G was more prevalent among African-Americans (OR [95% CI] 3.65 [1.58−8.43]). In-vitro assays confirm rs146534657:A>G and rs2230926:T>G decrease the ability of TNFAIP3 to abrogate NF-κB activation by 2-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.7-fold (P < 0.01), respectively.
This study reports the frequency of rs146534657:A>G among Hispanics and is the first to evaluate its potential physiologic impact, establishing a basis for future research as a potential biomarker among this population.
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later.
Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via the SAIL databank and linked to earlier data collected on breakfast consumption. Multilevel modelling assessed associations between breakfast consumption and SATs.
Trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales.
Year 5 and 6 students, n 3093 (baseline) and n 3055 (follow-up).
Significant associations were found between all dietary behaviours and better performance in SATs, adjusted for gender and individual- and school-level free school meal entitlement (OR=1·95; CI 1·58, 2·40 for breakfast, OR=1·08; CI 1·04, 1·13 for healthy breakfast items). No association was observed between number of unhealthy breakfast items consumed and educational performance. Association of breakfast consumption with educational performance was stronger where the measure of breakfast consumption was more proximal to SATs tests (OR=2·02 measured 6 months prior to SATs, OR=1·61 measured 18 months prior).
Significant positive associations between self-reported breakfast consumption and educational outcomes were observed. Future research should aim to explore the mechanisms by which breakfast consumption and educational outcomes are linked, and understand how to promote breakfast consumption among schoolchildren. Communicating findings of educational benefits to schools may help to enhance buy-in to efforts to improve health behaviours of pupils.
Universal interventions may widen or narrow inequalities if disproportionately effective among higher or lower socio-economic groups. The present paper examines impacts of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales on inequalities in children's dietary behaviours and cognitive functioning.
Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Responses were linked to free school meal (FSM) entitlement via the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank. Impacts on inequalities were evaluated using weighted school-level regression models with interaction terms for intervention × whole-school percentage FSM entitlement and intervention × aggregated individual FSM entitlement. Individual-level regression models included interaction terms for intervention × individual FSM entitlement.
Fifty-five intervention and fifty-six wait-list control primary schools.
Approximately 4500 children completed measures of dietary behaviours and cognitive tests at baseline and 12-month follow-up.
School-level models indicated that children in intervention schools ate a greater number of healthy items for breakfast than children in control schools (b = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·44), with larger increases observed in more deprived schools (interaction term b = 1·76; 95 % CI 0·36, 3·16). An interaction between intervention and household-level deprivation was not significant. Despite no main effects on breakfast skipping, a significant interaction was observed, indicating declines in breakfast skipping in more deprived schools (interaction term b = −0·07; 95 % CI −0·15, −0·00) and households (OR = 0·67; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·98). No significant influence on inequality was observed for the remaining outcomes.
Universal breakfast provision may reduce socio-economic inequalities in consumption of healthy breakfast items and breakfast skipping. There was no evidence of intervention-generated inequalities in any outcomes.
Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than did the foster children across several regions, including the right anterior cingulate cortex, the middle frontal gyrus, and the right lingual gyrus, during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior occipital cortex, including the lingual gyrus and cuneus, during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control.
Background: Substantial epidemiological research has shown that psychotic experiences are more common in densely populated areas. Many patients with persecutory delusions find it difficult to enter busy social urban settings. The stress and anxiety caused by being outside lead many patients to remain in-doors. We therefore developed a brief CBT intervention, based upon a formulation of the way urban environments cause stress and anxiety, to help patients with paranoid thoughts to feel less distressed when outside in busy streets. Aims: The aim was to pilot the new intervention for feasibility and acceptability and gather preliminary outcome data. Method: Fifteen patients with persecutory delusions in the context of a schizophrenia diagnosis took part. All patients first went outside to test their reactions, received the intervention, and then went outside again. Results: The intervention was considered useful by the patients. There was evidence that going outside after the intervention led to less paranoid responses than the initial exposure, but this was only statistically significant for levels of distress. Conclusions: Initial evidence was obtained that a brief CBT module specifically focused on helping patients with paranoia go outside is feasible, acceptable, and may have clinical benefits. However, it could not be determined from this small feasibility study that any observed improvements were due to the CBT intervention. Challenges in this area and future work required are outlined.
Most of the intriguing issues to do with the environment, sustainability and development can appear to be complicated to the point of being overwhelming. The best example is climate change. It operates on a global scale with literally billions of stakeholders of which many are yet to be born and stretches our understanding of science and social interactions. To engage with an issue like this requires a framework to help think about it in a way that provides some clarity and simplicity but still approximates reality. Conceiving the issue from a systems perspective provides one such avenue to help focus on and understand aspects of the issue without losing sight of the whole picture. This chapter introduces systems and systems thinking as analysis tools that may be applied to gain an understanding of environmental systems and an approach to investigating and managing complex issues.
In the latter half of the 20th century, there was a growing interest and engagement of people worldwide in issues to do with the appropriate use of the biophysical environment. This followed a period when education to a high level was not common for the majority of people. However, people were starting to question the role of science and the expert in making decisions on their behalf. An example of the articulation of this problem was a paper by Rittel and Webber (1973) who coined the term ‘wicked problems’. A key idea of their paper was that different people would conceive the same problem in different ways. As a consequence, they would not necessarily agree on a single solution to the problem because there were multiple solutions, depending on how the problem was framed. A common type of problem of this form concerns the management, or reshaping, of the environment for human benefit.
The importance of thinking about scale in the study of human–environment relations cannot be overstated; it is one of the central problems of ecology … and one of the most vexing concepts in social theory … (Sneddon et al. 2002, p. 665)
Scale remains poorly understood, carelessly applied and surprisingly chaotic.
(Howitt 2002, p. 299)
This chapter is about scale: what it is and how it matters. In particular, it is about why scale matters for studying, understanding and reshaping human–environment interactions in the pursuit of sustainability (see Chapter 14). This chapter encompasses ways of thinking about and using scale from a range of disciplines and subdisciplines such as human geography, environmental engineering, ecology, Earth sciences, physical geography, sociology and political science. It also attempts to move beyond disciplines into interdisciplinary ways of thinking about scale.
The two quotes above demonstrate that the concept of scale is an incredibly complex one. Indeed, after decades of trying to develop and clarify this concept, scale theorists (people who seek to make sense of scale and how we use it in scientific inquiry) have not yet been able to manage the task. As Sneddon et al. (2002) note in the first quote above, scale is one of the most important yet problematic concepts in ecology and social theory, and it is vital in any attempt to understand human–environment relations. According to Howitt (2002), scientific thinking about scale is far from being well-organised and defined.
In 2006, Peter McGlynn from Melbourne and Harris Bein from Ilahita, a village in Papua New Guinea (PNG), sought the University of Melbourne’s assistance to improve the health and well-being of the people of Harris’s village. They had grave concerns about the long-term sustainability of the village for two reasons – a devastating drought in 1997–98 saw many people die due to poor nutrition and water supplies and, more generally, there is an increasing pressure on the village’s subsistence food supply and limited land resources because of population growth.
This case study describes a series of investigations and reflections based on a combination of research conducted in the village and students’ design project work on Ilahita. Aspects of the environmental and social conditions in Ilahita as well as two possible ways for providing improved water supplies will be examined. The potential impact of changes on the local and global environment will be considered in proposing an improvement to the system. The framework of examining issues laid out in Chapter 16 will be used.
As it was originally proposed, the extended phenotype comprised ‘all effects of a gene upon the world’ (Dawkins, 1989) and portrayed how the effects of a gene borne by an organism influenced its biotic and abiotic environments. The consideration of indirect genetic effects, in which an organism’s phenotype becomes part of the selective environment of conspecifics (Wolf et al., 1998), was developed rigorously in the population genetics context and the concept subsequently extended to include effects on heterospecifics (Whitham et al., 2003). The extended phenotype concept has been adopted as a framework by some evolutionary biologists and ecologists to study the roles of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) since Whitham et al. (2003) used heritable variation in tissue tannin concentrations among Populus species and hybrids to develop the concept of community and ecosystem genetics (Antonovics, 1992).
Many studies of how genetically determined variation in plant traits, including PSMs, drive associated community phenotypes and processes, have been based on differences between hybrids (Dungey et al., 2000; Hochwender & Fritz, 2004; Bailey et al., Chapter 14). Fewer studies have investigated the effects on extended phenotypes of continuously varying PSMs or between known genotypes within a species (Whitham et al., 2006; Schweitzer et al., 2008; Barbour et al., 2009; O’Reilly-Wapstra et al., Chapter 2). A convenient approach to identification and utilisation of genotypic variation for the study of multiple effects of PSMs is provided by the use of genetic polymorphisms. A polymorphism can be defined as occurring when a trait such as a morphological or biochemical character exists in two or more distinct forms in a randomly mating population within a species (Ford, 1975). The approach is particularly useful in species that cannot be readily cloned. Here, we review examples of how intra-specific variation in a particular group of PSMs, the monoterpenes, has informed our understanding of how PSMs can play multiple ecological roles and mediate the extended phenotype of plants. The monoterpenes are a group of low-molecular-weight, volatile terpenoids which form a very diverse group in terms of number of compounds, structure and function (Gershenzon & Dudareva, 2007). We use variation within species which are polymorphic for concentrations or presence of monoterpenes to provide an insight into their ecological ramifications and larger-scale consequences, against the background of intra-specific variation in other traits.
Background: Though motivational interviewing (MI) has demonstrated efficacy in a range of behaviour change settings, effectiveness will require successful integration into everyday practice. This study examines implementers’ views on delivering MI within an exercise referral scheme and consistency of consultations with MI before and after a 2-day workshop. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 exercise professionals and 10 area coordinators delivering the Welsh National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS), and the MI trainer. Eleven professionals provided consultation recordings before and 6-months after training, coded for fidelity using the Behaviour Change Counselling Index. Results: The workshop was well received by most, triggering increased recognition of potential motivational roles of consultations. However, some cited difficulties combining MI with structured data gathering activities, whilst a minority rejected MI, seeing current practice as effective, or MI as unnecessary because patients were ready to change. Although limited aggregate improvement in practice was observed, substantial improvements were observed in some individuals. Comments on the need for further practice or training were widespread. Conclusions: Efforts to implement MI should ensure that training and structures to provide monitoring and feedback are in place and that activities incorporated within consultations are compatible with MI delivery.
The electronic structure of Pu materials is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. For delta-phase Pu metal as well as PuCoGa5 and PuIn3, the 5f electrons appear to be at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. A mixed level model computational scheme is used which results in non-magnetic solutions for the electronic structure and agrees well with the photoemission measurements. Several other computational schemes are assessed against photoemission results for delta Pu. Additional insight is provided by O2 and H2 dosing of the delta Pu samples and consideration of surface effects. The experimental and computational results are consistent with the 5f electrons in Pu materials exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons.
The electronic structure of single crystal UO2 and polycrystalline δ-Pu is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. These two actinide materials exhibit properties consistent with the 5f electrons at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. The results for δ-Pu may be viewed as the 5f electrons exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons. For UO2 where angle-resolved photoemission is available, one observes dispersion in the 5f features indicative of the 5f electrons being influenced by the periodic potential of the lattice rather than purely influenced by the site to which the 5f electrons are generally localized.