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This paper proposes a framework for comprehensive, collaborative, and community-based care (C4) for accessible mental health services in low-resource settings. Because mental health conditions have many causes, this framework includes social, public health, wellness and clinical services. It accommodates integration of stand-alone mental health programs with health and non-health community-based services. It addresses gaps in previous models including lack of community-based psychotherapeutic and social services, difficulty in addressing comorbidity of mental and physical conditions, and how workers interact with respect to referral and coordination of care. The framework is based on task-shifting of services to non-specialized workers. While the framework draws on the World Health Organization’s Mental Health Gap Action Program and other global mental health models, there are important differences. The C4 Framework delineates types of workers based on their skills. Separate workers focus on: basic psychoeducation and information sharing; community-level, evidence-based psychotherapeutic counseling; and primary medical care and more advanced, specialized mental health services for more severe or complex cases. This paper is intended for individuals, organizations and governments interested in implementing mental health services. The primary aim is to provide a framework for the provision of widely accessible mental health care and services.
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing helps prognosticate and guide treatment in adults with pulmonary hypertension. Concerns regarding its feasibility and safety limit its use in children with pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in a large paediatric pulmonary hypertension cohort.
We reviewed all consecutive cardiopulmonary exercise tests performed between March, 2004 and November, 2013. The exclusion criteria were as follows: height <120 cm, World Health Organization class IV, history of exercise-induced syncope, or significant ischaemia/arrhythmias. Significant events recorded were as follows: patient-reported symptoms, arrhythmias, electrocardiogram abnormalities, and abnormal responses of arterial O2 saturation.
A total of 98 children underwent 167 cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The median age was 14 years (inter-quartile range 10–15 years). Peak oxygen uptake was 20.4±7.3 ml/kg/minute, corresponding to 51.8±18.3% of the predicted value. Peak respiratory quotient was 1.08±0.16. All the tests except two were maximal, being terminated prematurely for clinical reasons. Baseline Oxygen saturation was 93.3±8.8% and was 81.2±19.5% at peak exercise. A drop in arterial O2 saturation >20% was observed in 23.5% of the patients. Moreover, five patients (3.0%) experienced dizziness, one requiring termination of cardiopulmonary exercise testing; five children (3.0%) experienced chest pain, with early cardiopulmonary exercise test termination in one patient. No significant arrhythmias or electrocardiogram changes were observed.
Exercise testing in non-severely symptomatic children with pulmonary hypertension is safe and practical, and can be performed in a large number of children with pulmonary hypertension in a controlled environment with an experienced team. Side-effects were not serious and were resolved promptly with test termination.
Atrial septostomy is performed in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, and has been shown to improve symptoms, quality of life and survival. Despite recognized clinical benefits, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the effects of right-to-left shunting on arterial delivery of oxygen, mixed venous content of oxygen, and systemic cardiac output in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and a fixed flow of blood to the lungs. We formulated equations defining the mandatory relationship between physiologic variables and delivery of oxygen in patients with right-to-left shunting. Using calculus and computer modelling, we considered the simultaneous effects of right-to-left shunting on physiologies with different pulmonary flows, total metabolic rates, and capacities for carrying oxygen. Our study indicates that, when the flow of blood to the lungs is fixed, increasing right-to-left shunting improves systemic cardiac output, arterial blood pressure, and arterial delivery of oxygen. In contrast, the mixed venous content of oxygen, which mirrors the average state of tissue oxygenation, remains unchanged. Our model suggests that increasing the volume of right-to-left shunting cannot compensate for right ventricular failure. Atrial septostomy in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension, therefore, increases the arterial delivery of oxygen, but the mixed systemic saturation of oxygen, arguably the most important index of tissue oxygenation, stays constant. Our data suggest that the clinically observed beneficial effects of atrial septostomy are the result of improved flow of blood rather than augmented tissue oxygenation, provided that right ventricular function is adequate.
Infection with varicella zoster virus, leading to chicken pox in susceptible hosts, is usually a benign self-limiting disease conferring immunity in those affected. Cardiac complications are rare, but when present may lead to severe morbidity or mortality.
We have recently encountered three children, all of whom developed significant cardiac complications secondary to infection with varicella. Myocarditis has long been associated with such infection. The pathological mechanism is presumed similar to other cardiotropic viruses, where both direct cytopathic and secondary auto-immune effects contribute to myocardial cellular destruction and ventricular dysfunction. Complications include arrhythmias and progression to dilated cardiomyopathy.
Pericarditis, and secondary pericardial effusion, related to infection with the virus is most commonly associated with secondary bacterial infiltration. Both cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial constriction may result.
Endocarditis complicating varicella has only been described in the last fifteen years, and is associated with the emergence of virulent strains of both streptococcus and staphylococcus, the two organisms most commonly associated with endocarditis. The exact mechanism by which varicella causes secondary bacterial endocarditis remains unclear.
Whilst cardiac complications of infection with the varicella zoster virus are rare, the resulting complications are potentially life threatening. Evidence of varicella-induced carditis must be aggressively pursued in any child with signs of acute cardiac decompensation in whom chicken pox is confirmed or suspected.
In the United Kingdom, there has been a steady decline in the number of conventional autopsies performed in children. For cardiovascular disease, structural and not pathological considerations are often more important in defining the cause of death. Magnetic resonance imaging is now often used in the assessment of congenital cardiac malformations during life. In this case report, we demonstrate how post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging was able to establish the diagnosis of aortic rupture in a patient who had undergone surgical repair of aortic interruption. In this patient, the parents had declined conventional histopathological autopsy, but were happy to consent to magnetic resonance post-mortem assessment.
Aortic coarctation is a recognized arteriopathy in patients with Williams’ syndrome. We present an adolescent with Williams’ syndrome who developed rapid restenosis after primary stenting of coarctation of the aorta. We believe such restenosis within the stent is due to a proliferative response of the abnormal aortic wall. Attention should be paid to the potential for restenosis during follow-up after stenting of aortic coarctation in patients with Williams’ syndrome.
Feeding the dairy cow during the transition phase (dry to lactating) has been found to effect subsequent feed intake and milk yield (Moorby et al., 1996; Olsson et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of feeding a liquid feed during the prepartum period on; feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, live weight loss and blood metabolite levels.
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