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The oath taken by British sovereigns at their coronations is laid down by a statute dating from 1688. Any oath taken other than in accordance with the correct statutory form is contrary to law. Taking the authorised form of the oath is a condition on which the crown is held by any individual. The oath taken by the present sovereign omitted the promise to govern according to the statutes agreed upon in Parliament. Any variance from the statutory form is problematic but the clause omitted is the clause that most clearly expresses the central concern of the Williamite settlement. The deficiencies in the oath taken, while reasonably apparent, do not appear to have been judicially recognised hitherto. The legal basis of the present oath has been raised in the political sphere but potential difficulties have been set aside on grounds of expediency. Given the unlawfulness of the oath taken, there is a political and constitutional imperative in establishing that deficiencies in the oath do not fatally taint the reign which follows. This article will advance two possible legal means of reconciling an improper oath with a perfectly valid reign.
We used the process-oriented niche model CLIMEX to estimate the potential
global distribution of serrated tussock under projected future climates.
Serrated tussock is a drought-tolerant, wind- and human-dispersed grass of
South American origin that has invaded pastures in Australia, Europe, New
Zealand, and South Africa. The likely effect of climate change on its
potential global distribution was assessed by applying six climate-change
scenarios to a previously developed model. The projections of climatic
suitability under the current climate revealed considerable scope for
spread, with the most suitable areas occurring adjacent to existing
naturalized populations in Australia, New Zealand, and Western Europe. Under
future climates, projected to the 2080s, the land area suitable for serrated
tussock contracts globally between 20 and 27%. Changes in projected
potential area under the six scenarios were very similar in all geographical
regions apart from North America and New Zealand, where the projections
range from little change or contraction under the National Center for
Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Centre for Climate Research (MIROC) global
climate models (GCMs) to expansion under the Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) GCM. Elsewhere, contractions occur
in Australia, Asia, South America, and Africa under all six future climate
scenarios. By contrast, for Europe, the area climatically suitable for
serrated tussock increases under all six scenarios (average increase 47%)
through expansions into eastern European countries that are currently
unsuitable and through increases in the suitable area in England, Ireland,
and Denmark. Since pastoralism is a dominant land use in these regions of
Europe, a prudent biosecurity strategy would be to contain the nascent foci
of serrated tussock in southern France, along the west coast of Italy, and
in the United Kingdom. This strategy could consist of a set of policies to
limit human-assisted dispersal of the species' seeds and to reduce
wind-borne spread through cultural control of the plant.
Tall buttercup, a native of central and northern Europe, has become
naturalized in the United States and Canada, and in South Africa, Tasmania
and New Zealand. In Canada and New Zealand it has become an economically
significant weed in cattle-grazed pastures. In this study we develop a
CLIMEX model for tall buttercup and use it to project the weed's potential
distribution under current and future climates and in the presence and
absence of irrigation. There was close concordance between the model's
projection of suitable climate and recorded observations of the species. The
projection was highly sensitive to irrigation; the area of potentially
suitable land globally increasing by 30% (from 34 to 45 million
km2) under current climate when a “top-up” irrigation regime
(rainfall topped up 4 mm d−1 on irrigable land), was included in
the model. Most of the area that becomes suitable under irrigation is
located in central Asia and central North America. By contrast, climate
change is projected to have the opposite effect; the potential global
distribution diminishing by 18% (from 34 to 28 million km2). This
range contraction was the net result of a northward expansion in the
northern limit for the species in Canada and the Russian Federation, and a
relatively larger increase in the land area becoming unsuitable mainly in
central Asia and south eastern United States.
A simple model for underground mineral leaching is considered, in which liquor is injected into the rock at one point and retrieved from the rock by being pumped out at another point. In its passage through the rock, the liquor dissolves some of the ore of interest, and this is therefore recovered in solution. When the injection and recovery points lie on a vertical line, the region of wetted rock forms an axi-symmetric plume, the surface of which is a free boundary. We present an accurate numerical method for the solution of the problem, and obtain estimates for the maximum possible recovery rate of the liquor, as a fraction of the injected flow rate. Limiting cases are discussed, and other geometries for fluid recovery are considered.
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