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Dimensional models of psychopathology are increasingly common and there is evidence for the existence of a general dimension of psychopathology (‘p’). The existing literature presents two ways to model p: as a bifactor or as a higher-order dimension. Bifactor models typically fit sample data better than higher-order models, and are often selected as better fitting alternatives but there are reasons to be cautious of such an approach to model selection. In this study the bifactor and higher-order models of p were compared in relation to associations with established risk variables for mental illness.
A trauma exposed community sample from the United Kingdom (N = 1051) completed self-report measures of 49 symptoms of psychopathology.
A higher-order model with four first-order dimensions (Fear, Distress, Externalising and Thought Disorder) and a higher-order p dimension provided satisfactory model fit, and a bifactor representation provided superior model fit. Bifactor p and higher-order p were highly correlated (r = 0.97) indicating that both parametrisations produce near equivalent general dimensions of psychopathology. Latent variable models including predictor variables showed that the risk variables explained more variance in higher-order p than bifactor p. The higher-order model produced more interpretable associations for the first-order/specific dimensions compared to the bifactor model.
The higher-order representation of p, as described in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology, appears to be a more appropriate way to conceptualise the general dimension of psychopathology than the bifactor approach. The research and clinical implications of these discrepant ways of modelling p are discussed.
There is a growing body of literature describing the characteristics of patients who plan for the end of life, but little research has examined how caregivers influence patients' advance care planning (ACP). The purpose of this study was to examine how patient and caregiver characteristics are associated with advance directive (AD) completion among patients diagnosed with a terminal illness. We defined AD completion as having completed a living will and/or identified a healthcare power of attorney.
A convenience sample of 206 caregiver–patient dyads was included in the study. All patients were diagnosed with an advanced life-limiting illness. Trained research nurses administered surveys to collect information on patient and caregiver demographics (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, and individual annual income) and patients' diagnoses and completion of AD. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to model predictors for patients' AD completion.
Over half of our patient sample (59%) completed an AD. Patients who were older, diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and with a caregiver who was Caucasian or declined to report an income level were more likely to have an AD in place.
Significance of results:
Our results suggest that both patient and caregiver characteristics may influence patients' decisions to complete an AD at the end of life. When possible, caregivers should be included in advance care planning for patients who are terminally ill.
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