Hydrogen is under consideration by several countries for its potential as an energy carrier for transportation applications. In order to compete with vehicles in use today, hydrogen-powered vehicles will require a driving range of greater than 300-miles in order to meet customer needs and expectations. For the overall vehicular light-duty fleet, this dictates that a range of 5 to 13 kg of hydrogen be stored on-board (assuming a fuel cell power plant) within stringent system weight, volume, and cost constraints. Vehicular hydrogen storage thus constitutes a major scientific and technological challenge. To meet this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a “National Hydrogen Storage Project” with roughly 40 universities, 15 companies and 10 federal laboratories, actively engaged in hydrogen storage research. Centers of Excellence in metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and carbon-based materials have been established, as well as independent university and industry projects in the areas of new concepts/materials, hydrogen storage testing, and storage system analysis. Recent technical progress in each of these areas is discussed.