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Synchrotron radiation was used to obtain a high-resolution powder diffraction pattern of the high-density form of BeH2, a material whose unit-cell dimensions have not previously been determined. The observed d-spacing values were presented to three different computer indexing programs. All three programs returned as best solution a body-centered orthorhombic unit cell with a = 9.082, b = 4.160, c = 7.707 Å and V = 292 Å3. Interpretation of the three-dimensional Patterson led to 12 BeH2 molecules per unit cell; thus, the theoretical density is 0.755 g/cm3. The molecular structure is based on a network of corner-sharing BeH4 tetrahedra rather than flat, infinite chains with hydrogen bridges previously assumed.
Phase identification by X-ray diffraction techniques in a complex mixture would be greatly simplified if the component phases could be physically separated. As opposed to current computer search-match algorithms for phase identification, which presuppose a single diffraction scan on a carefully prepared sample, we propose multi-scan data-taking on a not-so-carefully prepared sample so as to exploit certain aberrations in the diffracted intensities. The result can effectively be a physical separation by diffraction. Examples include exploitation of samples having a preferentially oriented component as well as samples with components having differing crystallite sizes. The techniques can involve diffractometer as well as film techniques.
The lattice relaxation of strained Si1-xGex layers on Si (001) substrates has been examined. Single layers having a nominal composition of x = 0.14 were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy to thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 μm, all of which are greater than the critical thickness where misfit-dislocation generation commences. Double-crystal and white-radiation topographic methods were used to reveal the misfit dislocation structure and distribution. The misfit dislocations were shown to extend from heterogeneous nucleation sites along the four available <110> directions in the plane of the interface. A symmetric distribution of dislocations between the orthogonal < 110> directions was observed. Secondary branching of the misfit dislocations was also observed which accelerates the relaxation process.
ZnSe epitaxial films have been grown on (100) GaAs by reduced pressure organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) from tertiary-butyl(allyl)selenium (tBASe) and dimethylzinc triethylamine adduct (DMZnNEt3) at temperatures of 325-450ΰC. Good surface morphology, film crystallinity and interface quality have been found with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCD) and Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy (RBS). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) shows negligible carbon concentration (below 5x1017atoms/cm3). Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) exhibits a strong near band-edge emission with a dominant donor-bound peak. Gas-phase pyrolysis of tBASe has been probed at reduced pressure in a molecular beam mass spectrometric system in hydrogen and deuterium carrier gases. The precursor decomposes above 200ΰC by β-hydrogen elimination and by homolysis of the Se-C bonds. High isobutene vs. isobutane ratios (50-100) indicate a predominance of β-hydrogen elimination over homolysis at temperatures below 400ΰC. Diallylselenium is present in the gasphase in low concentrations at temperatures of 200-350ΰC. Diallylselenium, methylallylselenium and dimethyl-selenium have been observed as minor by-products during pyrolysis of co-dosed tBASe and DMZnNEt3. The effect of the retro-ene decomposition pathway of allylselenium reagents on carbon incorporation into ZnSe films is further probed by growth experiments with in situ generated 2-methylpropaneselenal.
Czochralski (CZ) grown Si wafers, specially prepared with unusually high carbon content (ranging from 3 to 7 ppma), were subjected to a rapid thermal processing (RTP) treatment at 1050°C for 60s. Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography in transmission geometry was used to study defect structures in these Si wafers, both prior and subsequent to this RTP treatment. Observations of both the partial relaxation of the strain fields of precipitates and widespread nucleation and propagation of dislocations accompanying RTP are presented and discussed. Results are contrasted with those from parallel studies previously conducted on low carbon content wafers.
At the time of the discovery of the physiological changes of spiral arteries in the pregnant uterus, Brosens and colleagues suggested that these changes result from the destructive action of the invading trophoblasts on the vascular smooth muscle and the elastic membrane. This chapter reiterates the main findings regarding the successive spiral artery remodeling steps. It seems appropriate to relate the time-course of the vascular remodeling process to the new insights in uteroplacental flow changes during this pregnancy period. In preeclampsia, trophoblast-associated remodeling is restricted to decidual spiral arteries throughout the placental bed. Spiral artery conversion is obviously important for safeguarding an adequate maternal blood supply to the placenta. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling of the inner 'junctional zone' myometrium is a feature of normal human pregnancy, while in preeclampsia and maybe in other pregnancy complications this process may be seriously impaired.
Psychiatric phenotypes are currently defined according to sets of
descriptive criteria. Although many of these phenotypes are heritable, it
would be useful to know whether any of the various diagnostic categories
in current use identify cases that are particularly helpful for
To use genome-wide genetic association data to explore the relative
genetic utility of seven different descriptive operational diagnostic
categories relevant to bipolar illness within a large UK case–control
bipolar disorder sample.
We analysed our previously published Wellcome Trust Case Control
Consortium (WTCCC) bipolar disorder genome-wide association data-set,
comprising 1868 individuals with bipolar disorder and 2938 controls
genotyped for 276 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met
stringent criteria for genotype quality. For each SNP we performed a test
of association (bipolar disorder group v. control group) and used the
number of associated independent SNPs statistically significant at
P<0.00001 as a metric for the overall genetic
signal in the sample. We next compared this metric with that obtained
using each of seven diagnostic subsets of the group with bipolar
disorder: Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC): bipolar I disorder; manic
disorder; bipolar II disorder; schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type;
DSM–IV: bipolar I disorder; bipolar II disorder; schizoaffective
disorder, bipolar type.
The RDC schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type (v.
controls) stood out from the other diagnostic subsets as having a
significant excess of independent association signals
(P<0.003) compared with that expected in samples of
the same size selected randomly from the total bipolar disorder group
data-set. The strongest association in this subset of participants with
bipolar disorder was at rs4818065 (P = 2.42 ×
10–7). Biological systems implicated included gamma
amniobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors. Genes having at least one
associated polymorphism at P<10–4 included
B3GALTS, A2BP1, GABRB1, AUTS2, BSN, PTPRG, GIRK2 and
Our findings show that individuals with broadly defined bipolar
schizoaffective features have either a particularly strong genetic
contribution or that, as a group, are genetically more homogeneous than
the other phenotypes tested. The results point to the importance of using
diagnostic approaches that recognise this group of individuals. Our
approach can be applied to similar data-sets for other psychiatric and
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.