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A three-section pulse forming network (PFN) based on Guillemin type-C circuit was developed to meet the challenge of a compact design, high withstand voltage, and high-quality output waveform with fast rise time, flat-top duration, and 100-ns pulse width. A simplified pulse forming circuit was proposed and studied that includes only three LC-sections connected in parallel, with each section containing an inductor and a capacitor connected in series. The effect of the capacitance deviation on the output waveform was investigated. The simulation results show that when the capacitance deviation exceeds +3%, both the flat top and fall time of the output waveform of single PFN module deteriorate greatly. Fortunately, in a multi-stage PFN-Marx circuit, even if the capacitance deviation exceeds +10%, when the average capacitance of the same LC sections is close to the theoretical value, the output waveform maintains a good quality and is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. The compact three-section PFN developed during this project has a size of only 360 mm × 342 mm × 65 mm, and a maximum withstand voltage of 120 kV. Sixteen PFN stages were assembled to form a Marx generator with design parameters to provide of an output peak power of 12 GW and a maximum peak current of 15 kA. The tested output waveform agrees well with the theoretical results, having a rise time of 31 ns, a flat-top of 104 ns, and a pulse with of 164 ns.
Altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) has been noted in large-scale functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, identifying consistent abnormalities of functional networks is difficult due to varied methods and results across studies. To integrate rsFC alterations and search for coherent patterns of intrinsic functional network impairments in ADHD, this research conducts a coordinate-based meta-analysis of voxel-wise seed-based rsFC studies comparing rsFC between ADHD patients and healthy controls. A total of 25 datasets from 21 studies including 700 ADHD patients and 580 controls were analyzed. We extracted the coordinates of seeds and between-group effects. Each seed was then categorized into a seed-network by its location within priori 7-network parcellations. Then, pooled meta-analyses were conducted for the default mode network (DMN), frontoparietal network (FPN) and affective network (AN) separately, but not for the ventral attention network (VAN), dorsal attention network (DAN), somatosensory network (SSN) and visual network due to a lack of primary studies. The results showed that ADHD was characterized by hyperconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the DMN and AN as well as hypoconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the VAN and SSN. These findings not only support the triple-network model of pathophysiology associated with ADHD but also extend this model by highlighting the involvement of the SSN and AN in the mechanisms of network interactions that may account for motor hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms.
Three-dimensional nano-mulberries consisting of SnO2 nanoparticles have been successfully anchored onto the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to construct hierarchical hybrids—SnO2@RGO with a one-pot approach. The SnO2 nano-mulberries with different amounts of RGO have been produced for optimizing their composition effect on Li storage performance. Specifically, SnO2@RGO hybrids incorporated with optimized amount of RGO nanosheets (∼20.8%) exhibit highly enhanced capacity of ∼1025 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and a reversible capacity of 750 mA h/g over 100 cycles at 0.2 A/g. The materials also deliver much better rate performance with average specific capacity of ∼498 mA h/g at 2 A/g in comparison with that of SnO2 nano-mulberries. After cycling for 600 times at 1 A/g, the SnO2@RGO electrodes still maintain high reversible capacity of ∼602 mA h/g, corresponding to 35% of the second cycle and 133% of the 70th discharge capacity.
Although topographic mapping missions and geological surveys carried out by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly prevalent, the lack of precise navigation in these scenarios still limits their application. This paper deals with the problems of long-term underwater navigation for AUVs and provides new mapping techniques by developing a Bathymetric Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping (BSLAM) method based on graph SLAM technology. To considerably reduce the calculation cost, the trajectory of the AUV is divided into various submaps based on Differences of Normals (DoN). Loop closures between submaps are obtained by terrain matching; meanwhile, maximum likelihood terrain estimation is also introduced to build weak data association within the submap. Assisted by one weight voting method for loop closures, the global and local trajectory corrections work together to provide an accurate navigation solution for AUVs with weak data association and inaccurate loop closures. The viability, accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed algorithm are verified with data collected onboard, including an 8 km planned track recorded at a speed of 4 knots in Qingdao, China.
In this study, a novel brick-like NiCo2O4 material was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared NiCo2O4 material possessed high porosity with the BET specific surface area of 58.33 m2/g, and its pore size distribution was in a range of 5-15 nm with a dominant pore diameter of 10.7 nm. The electrochemical performance of the NiCo2O4 was further investigated as anode material for lithium-ion battery. The NiCo2O4 anode possessed a high lithium storage capacity up to 2353.0 mAh/g at the current density of 100 mA/g. Even at the high rate of 1 A/g, a reversible capacity of ∼600 mAh/g was still retained, and an average discharge capacity of ∼1145 mAh/g could be recovered when the current density was reduced back to 150 mA/g. Due to the simple and cost-effective process, the NiCo2O4 bricks anode material shows great potential for further large-scale applications on the area of lithium-ion battery.
This paper introduces recent activities on Marx-based compact repetitive pulsed power generators at the Institute of Applied Electronics (IAE), China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), over the period 2010–2018. A characteristic feature of the generators described is the use of a simplified bipolar charged Marx circuit, in which the normal isolation resistors or inductors to ground are removed to make the circuit simpler. Several pulse-forming modules developed to generate a 100 ns square wave output are introduced, including thin-film dielectric lines of different structures, a pulse-forming line based on a Printed Circuit Board, and non-uniform pulse-forming networks. A compact repetitive three-electrode spark gap switch with low-jitter, high-voltage, and high-current was developed and is used in the generators. A positive and negative series resonant constant current power supply with high precision and high power is introduced. As an important part of the repetitive pulse power generator, a lower jitter pulse trigger source is introduced. Several typical high-power repetitive pulsed power generators developed at IAE are introduced including a 30 GW low-impedance Marx generator, a compact square-wave pulse generator based on Kapton-film dielectric Blumlein line, a 20 GW high pulse-energy repetitive PFN-Marx generator, and a coaxial Marx generator based on ceramic capacitors. The research of key technologies and their development status are discussed, which can provide a reference for the future development and application of miniaturization of compact and repetitive Marx generators.
Previous studies in schizophrenia revealed abnormalities in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical circuit (CCTCC) pathway, suggesting the necessity for defining thalamic subdivisions in understanding alterations of brain connectivity.
To parcellate the thalamus into several subdivisions using a data-driven method, and to evaluate the role of each subdivision in the alterations of CCTCC functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.
There were 54 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls included in this study. First, the thalamic structural and functional connections computed, based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, white matter tractography) and resting-state functional MRI, were clustered to parcellate thalamus. Next, functional connectivity of each thalamus subdivision was investigated, and the alterations in thalamic functional connectivity for patients with schizophrenia were inspected.
Based on the data-driven parcellation method, six thalamic subdivisions were defined. Loss of connectivity was observed between several thalamic subdivisions (superior-anterior, ventromedial and dorsolateral part of the thalamus) and the sensorimotor system, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum in patients with schizophrenia. A gradual pattern of dysconnectivity was observed across the thalamic subdivisions. Additionally, the altered connectivity negatively correlated with symptom scores and duration of illness in individuals with schizophrenia.
The findings of the study revealed a wide range of thalamic functional dysconnectivity in the CCTCC pathway, increasing our understanding of the relationship between the CCTCC pathway and symptoms associated with schizophrenia, and further indicating a potential alteration pattern in the thalamic nuclei in people with schizophrenia.
Compared with commercial polyolefin membranes, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane prepared by electrostatic spinning has higher porosity, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability, and lithium-ion conductivity, etc. However, poor mechanical performance has largely limited the application of electrospun PAN separators. In this study, PAN/polyimide (PI) composite membrane is prepared by electrostatic spinning to improve the mechanical and electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis method, and electrochemical methods were used for evaluation of the electrospun composite membrane. The results show that the composite membrane possesses good thermal stability and exhibits better mechanical performance than pristine PAN membrane (increasing by 1.1 times in tension strength). The addition of PI can increase porosity and fluid absorption rate obviously. In addition, the composite membrane has high ionic conductivity (18.77 × 10−4 S/cm), wide electrochemical window (about 4.0 V), and excellent cycling performance. It can retain a discharge specific capacity of 153 mA h/g even after 50 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrospun PAN/PI membrane may be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery separators.
In this paper, we reported both the experimental demonstration and theoretical analysis of a Raman fiber laser based on a master oscillator–power amplifier configuration. The Raman fiber laser adopted the dual-wavelength bidirectional pumping configuration, utilizing 976 nm laser diodes and 1018 nm fiber lasers as the pump sources. A 60-m-long
ytterbium-doped fiber was used to convert the power from 1070 to 1124 nm, realizing a maximum power output of 3.7 kW with a 3 dB spectral width of 6.8 nm. Moreover, we developed a multi-frequency model taking into consideration the Raman gain spectrum and amplified spontaneous emission. The calculated spectral broadening of both the forward and backward laser was in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, a 1.5 kW, 1183 nm second-order Raman fiber laser was further experimentally demonstrated by the addition of a 70-m-long germanium-doped passive fiber.
Hepatitis E is an important zoonosis that is prevalent in China. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogen that affects humans and animals and endangers public health in China. In this study, the detection of HEV epidemics in swine in Sichuan Province, China, was carried out by nested real-time PCR. A total of 174 stool samples and 160 bile samples from swine in Sichuan Province were examined. In addition, software was used to analyse the biological evolution of HEV. The results showed that within 2 years of swine HEV (SHEV) infection in China, SHEV was first detected in Sichuan Province. HEV was endemic in Sichuan; the positive rate for pig farms was 11.1%, and the total positive sample rate was 10.5%. The age of swine with the highest positive rate (17.9%) was 5–9 weeks. The examined swine species in order of highest to lowest HEV infection rates were Chenghua pig, Large White, Duroc, Pietrain, Landrace and Hampshire. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis showed that the HEV epidemic in swine in Sichuan Province was related to genotype IV, which had the highest homology to HEV in Beijing. Sichuan strains have greater variation than Chinese representative strains, which may indicate the presence of new HEV strains.
To evaluate the therapeutic effect that the titanium partial ossicular reconstruction prosthesis and autologous ossicles have on hearing loss after reconstruction of a damaged ossicular chain.
Forty-two medical records of treatments carried out from 2013 to 2015 for ossicular chain damage with facial nerve paralysis due to temporal bone fractures were reviewed. The study assessed: causes of damage, pre-operative pure tone audiometry findings, types of intra-operative ossicular chain damage, intra-operative ossicular chain repair methods (titanium partial ossicular reconstruction prosthesis or autologous ossicles) and post-operative pure tone audiometry results.
The titanium partial ossicular reconstruction prosthesis was used in 26 cases; the average air–bone gap was 32.3 ± 5.3 dB pre-operatively and 12.8 ± 5.3 dB post-operatively. Autologous ossicles were used in 16 cases; the average air–bone gap was 33.4 ± 4.5 dB pre-operatively and 17.8 ± 7.8 dB post-operatively.
Ossicular chain reconstruction is an effective way of improving hearing in patients with ossicular chain damage. The results suggest that repair with either the titanium partial ossicular reconstruction prosthesis or autologous ossicles can improve hearing following ossicular chain injury with facial nerve paralysis caused by a temporal bone fracture.
Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are constituents of wool and hair fibres and are believed to play an important role in determining the characteristics of the fibres. In the current study, a polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) approach was used to screen for variation in the ovine KAP15-1 gene (KRTAP15-1). Four PCR-SSCP banding patterns, representing four different variants (named A to D), were detected. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms were found within the coding region and three of these were non-synonymous. The effect of this genetic variation on wool traits was investigated in 396 Merino × Southdown-cross sheep. Of the three variants found in these sheep (A, B and C), the presence of B was found to be associated with decreased wool yield, while C was associated with increased wool yield and decreased fibre diameter standard deviation. Sheep of genotype AC had a higher wool yield than those of genotype AA or AB.
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5′UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A). Besides, consistent mitochondrial DNA composition in the maternal linage precluded roles of mitochondria for this trait. In this pedigree, autosomes also contain diverse variations specific to MZ twins. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of genes carrying novel SNVs in the epithelial adherens junction-signaling pathway (p = .011), contributed by FGFR1, TUBB6, and MYH7B. Meanwhile, TBC1D22A, TRIOBP, and TUBB6, also carrying similar SNVs, were involved in the GTPase family-mediated signal pathway. Furthermore, gene-set enrichment analysis for 533 genes covered by copy number variations specific to MZ twins illustrated that the tight junction-signaling pathway was significantly enriched (p < .001). Therefore, the novel changes in the X chromosome and the provided candidate variants across autosomes may be responsible for MZ twinning, giving clues to increase our understanding about the underlying mechanism.
In this paper, a triple-wideband bandpass filter (BPF) with controllable bandwidths based on two multi-mode stub-loaded resonators (MMSLRs) and a triple-mode resonator is presented. The MMSLR is loaded with two identical folded open-ended stubs and a T-shaped stub. Each passband of the tri-band BPF is formed by four resonant modes, which provide sufficient bandwidths to meet various application requirement. By adjusting the lengths of open-ended stubs, three passband bandwidths can be controlled individually. The center frequencies of the triple-wideband BPF are allocated at 2.7, 3.67, and 5.44 GHz, with the 3 dB fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 20.1, 14.7, and 26.3%. Among the three passbands, the highest one covers the 5 G WiFi band (5.15–5.85 GHz). The measured results of the proposed filter exhibit excellent agreement with simulated results.
A hypoeutectic CoCrFeNiNbχ system was synthesized to investigate the effect of Nb content on the thermal stability, mechanical properties, and corrosion behaviors. The hypoeutectic CoCrFeNiNbχ alloy, which contained the Laves phase, possessed two-phase eutectic structures. The elevated temperature may have an impact on the stability of the Laves phase. Nanoindentation measurements showed that the Laves phase is much harder than the FCC phase, which could be confirmed by the shallower maximum penetration depth in the typical P–h curve. Furthermore, the plasticity of the Laves phase was characterized by nanoindentation measurements. Compared with the FCC phase, the activation energy of dislocation nucleation in the Laves phase is much higher due to the large atomic size difference and the phase difference. Corrosion and passivation behaviors of CoCrFeNiNbχ were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution. All the alloys exhibited spontaneous passivity and low current densities in 3.5% NaCl solution. Furthermore, the corrosion potential increased with the increasing Nb content, which indicated that the corrosion resistance enhanced with a higher Nb content.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults.
We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC).
Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013.
After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (P<0·01). In men, however, ED with foods only was positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI and %BF (P<0·05), but not with WC (P=0·07); we also found null associations between ED with foods and all beverages and body composition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (P<0·01).
The present study supports the positive association between ED and body composition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
Numerous systematic reviews of prospective studies on the association of stroke risk with the consumption of various food groups have been published. A review of the evidence across the existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses of prospective studies was conducted to provide an overview of the range and validity of the reported associations of food groups with stroke risk.
The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles published up to September 2015 to identify systematic reviews of prospective studies.
A total of eighteen studies published from 2008 to 2015 were eligible for analysis. Overall, thirteen specific foods were studied for an association with stroke outcome, including nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables, refined grains, whole grains, dairy products, eggs, chocolate, red and/or processed meat, fish, tea, sugar-sweetened beverages and coffee. Whereas a high consumption of nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy foods, fish and tea, and moderate consumption of coffee and chocolate demonstrated a protective effect, a high consumption of red and/or processed meat was associated with increased stroke risk. Refined grain, sugar-sweetened beverage, legume, egg and whole grain intake showed no effect on stroke outcome.
The current overview provided a high level of evidence to support the beneficial effect of specific foods on stroke outcome. Clinicians and policy makers could inform clinical practice and policy based on this overview.
Both fibronectin (FN) and filamentous actin (F-actin) fibers play a critical role for endothelial cells (ECs) in responding to shear stress and modulating cell alignment and functions. FN is dynamically coupled to the F-actin cytoskeleton via focal adhesions. However, it is unclear how ECs cooperatively remodel their subcellular FN matrix and intracellular F-actin cytoskeleton in response to shear stress. Current studies are hampered by the lack of a reliable and sensitive quantification method of FN orientation. In this study, we developed a MATLAB-based feature enhancement method to quantify FN and F-actin orientation. The role of F-actin in FN remodeling was also studied by treating ECs with cytochalasin D. We have demonstrated that FN and F-actin codistributed and coaligned parallel to the flow direction, and that F-actin alignment played an essential role in regulating FN alignment in response to shear stress. Our findings offer insight into how ECs cooperatively remodel their subcellular ECM and intracellular F-actin cytoskeleton in response to mechanical stimuli, and are valuable for vascular tissue engineering.