To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Daheyan region, situated in the SW of the Bogda Mountains in eastern Tianshan, is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated Carboniferous intrusions from the Daheyan area, SW Bogda Mountains, obtaining new zircon U–Pb ages, whole-rock geochemical data and Hf isotope data for these intrusions. Zircon U–Pb dating indicates that syenogranite, diorite, granodiorite and monzonite of the Daheyan intrusions were all formed during late Carboniferous (311–303 Ma) magmatism. The syenogranite has geochemical characteristics of A-type granites that were mainly sourced from melting of juvenile crust. In comparison, the low-Mg-number diorite intrusion, with tholeiite and metaluminous features, was derived from young crust and mixed some mantle materials. The granodiorite and monzonite are both I-type granites, and are both sourced from the melting of juvenile crust. Based on a comprehensive analysis of previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda–Harlik belt, we consider that late Carboniferous intrusive rocks of the Bogda Mountains formed in an intra-arc extension related to a continent-based arc setting.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Previous studies in schizophrenia revealed abnormalities in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical circuit (CCTCC) pathway, suggesting the necessity for defining thalamic subdivisions in understanding alterations of brain connectivity.
To parcellate the thalamus into several subdivisions using a data-driven method, and to evaluate the role of each subdivision in the alterations of CCTCC functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.
There were 54 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls included in this study. First, the thalamic structural and functional connections computed, based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, white matter tractography) and resting-state functional MRI, were clustered to parcellate thalamus. Next, functional connectivity of each thalamus subdivision was investigated, and the alterations in thalamic functional connectivity for patients with schizophrenia were inspected.
Based on the data-driven parcellation method, six thalamic subdivisions were defined. Loss of connectivity was observed between several thalamic subdivisions (superior-anterior, ventromedial and dorsolateral part of the thalamus) and the sensorimotor system, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum in patients with schizophrenia. A gradual pattern of dysconnectivity was observed across the thalamic subdivisions. Additionally, the altered connectivity negatively correlated with symptom scores and duration of illness in individuals with schizophrenia.
The findings of the study revealed a wide range of thalamic functional dysconnectivity in the CCTCC pathway, increasing our understanding of the relationship between the CCTCC pathway and symptoms associated with schizophrenia, and further indicating a potential alteration pattern in the thalamic nuclei in people with schizophrenia.
Compared with commercial polyolefin membranes, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane prepared by electrostatic spinning has higher porosity, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability, and lithium-ion conductivity, etc. However, poor mechanical performance has largely limited the application of electrospun PAN separators. In this study, PAN/polyimide (PI) composite membrane is prepared by electrostatic spinning to improve the mechanical and electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis method, and electrochemical methods were used for evaluation of the electrospun composite membrane. The results show that the composite membrane possesses good thermal stability and exhibits better mechanical performance than pristine PAN membrane (increasing by 1.1 times in tension strength). The addition of PI can increase porosity and fluid absorption rate obviously. In addition, the composite membrane has high ionic conductivity (18.77 × 10−4 S/cm), wide electrochemical window (about 4.0 V), and excellent cycling performance. It can retain a discharge specific capacity of 153 mA h/g even after 50 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrospun PAN/PI membrane may be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery separators.
Hepatitis E is an important zoonosis that is prevalent in China. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogen that affects humans and animals and endangers public health in China. In this study, the detection of HEV epidemics in swine in Sichuan Province, China, was carried out by nested real-time PCR. A total of 174 stool samples and 160 bile samples from swine in Sichuan Province were examined. In addition, software was used to analyse the biological evolution of HEV. The results showed that within 2 years of swine HEV (SHEV) infection in China, SHEV was first detected in Sichuan Province. HEV was endemic in Sichuan; the positive rate for pig farms was 11.1%, and the total positive sample rate was 10.5%. The age of swine with the highest positive rate (17.9%) was 5–9 weeks. The examined swine species in order of highest to lowest HEV infection rates were Chenghua pig, Large White, Duroc, Pietrain, Landrace and Hampshire. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis showed that the HEV epidemic in swine in Sichuan Province was related to genotype IV, which had the highest homology to HEV in Beijing. Sichuan strains have greater variation than Chinese representative strains, which may indicate the presence of new HEV strains.
An adaptive back-stepping sliding mode controller (ABSMC) algorithm was developed for nonlinear uncertain systems based on a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO). The developed ABSMC was applied to attitude control for the dual arm of a humanoid robot. Considering the system uncertainty and the unknown external disturbances, the ABSMC scheme was designed to eliminate the chattering phenomenon in the traditional sliding mode control and to reduce the tracking error closer to zero. The ABSMC algorithm solved problems related to the chattering of the system for both uncertainties and disturbances in the humanoid robotic system with an NDO in a two-dimensional environment. The algorithm was designed to work equally well with agents, with higher degrees of freedom in different applications. The method was appropriate for improving tracking performance. The ABSMC algorithm guaranteed global stability and improved the dynamic performance of the system. The algorithm inherited a low computational cost, probabilistic completeness, and asymptotic optimality from the fuzzy sliding mode control. This algorithm has a practical application in the dual arm of a humanoid robot with a circular trajectory. This paper showed the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed methods, which reduced the output of the controller and improved the control performance of the humanoid robotic system. The new combined control algorithm, ABSMC, was able to feasibly and efficiently weaken the chattering on the robot's closed-loop paths, starting and finishing at the same configuration.
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5′UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A). Besides, consistent mitochondrial DNA composition in the maternal linage precluded roles of mitochondria for this trait. In this pedigree, autosomes also contain diverse variations specific to MZ twins. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of genes carrying novel SNVs in the epithelial adherens junction-signaling pathway (p = .011), contributed by FGFR1, TUBB6, and MYH7B. Meanwhile, TBC1D22A, TRIOBP, and TUBB6, also carrying similar SNVs, were involved in the GTPase family-mediated signal pathway. Furthermore, gene-set enrichment analysis for 533 genes covered by copy number variations specific to MZ twins illustrated that the tight junction-signaling pathway was significantly enriched (p < .001). Therefore, the novel changes in the X chromosome and the provided candidate variants across autosomes may be responsible for MZ twinning, giving clues to increase our understanding about the underlying mechanism.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) participate in diverse physiological processes in insects, and HSP70 is one of the most highly conserved proteins in the HSP family. In this study, full-length cDNAs of three HSP70 genes (Lthsc70, Lthsp701, and Lthsp702) were cloned and characterized from Liriomyza trifolii, an important invasive pest of vegetable crops and horticultural crops worldwide. These three HSP70s exhibited signature sequences and motifs that are typical of the HSP70 family. The expression patterns of the three Lthsp70s during temperature stress and in different insect development stages were studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Lthsp701 was strongly induced by high- and low-temperature stress, but Lthsc70 and Lthsp702 were not very sensitive to temperature changes. All three Lthsp70s were expressed during insect development stages, but the expression patterns were quite different. The expression of Lthsc70 and Lthsp702 showed significant differences in expression during leafminer development; Lthsc70 was most highly expressed in female adults, whereas Lthsp702 was abundantly expressed in larvae and prepupae. Lthsp701 expression was not significantly different among leafminer stages. These results suggest that functional differentiation within the LtHSP70 subfamily has occurred in response to thermal stress and insect development.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults.
We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC).
Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013.
After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (P<0·01). In men, however, ED with foods only was positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI and %BF (P<0·05), but not with WC (P=0·07); we also found null associations between ED with foods and all beverages and body composition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (P<0·01).
The present study supports the positive association between ED and body composition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
This is a special issue in honor of Kwok Leung, whose path-breaking career in social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, organizational behavior, and international management was cut short by his untimely death in 2015. Newton said, ‘If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants’. In cultural research, it's Kwok's shoulders that enable us to see further.
The current positioning accuracy of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Single Point Positioning (SPP) with code measurement is in the order of several metres due to systematic errors. To further reduce the systematic errors in SPP, this contribution develops a new strategy to BDS SPP with a sparse reference network, named Augmented SPP (A-SPP). In this method, the Combined Residual Errors (CRE) products of BDS B1I measurement are integrated with three optional base stations that are close to the rover station. Based on the Satellite Elevation Angle Weighted (SEAW) average technique, the code residual errors of each BDS satellite observed by the rover station can be acquired epoch-by-epoch. Finally, the corrected code observations for the rover station can be utilised to achieve an A-SPP solution. The validation of this method is confirmed by both static and kinematic tests. Results clearly show that the accuracies of the A-SPP solution for horizontal and vertical directions are better than 0·5 m and 1·0 m. This study suggests that the proposed A-SPP solution is a good option for single-frequency GNSS users to improve their positioning performance.
This study aimed to describe the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) from mammary gland tissues collected from dairy cows with Streptococcus agalactiae-induced mastitis and to identify differentially expressed miRNAs related to mastitis. The mammary glands of Chinese Holstein cows were challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae to induce mastitis. Small RNAs were isolated from the mammary tissues of the test and control groups and then sequenced using the Solexa sequencing technology to construct two small RNA libraries. Potential target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using the RNAhybrid software, and KEGG pathways associated with these genes were analysed. A total of 18 555 913 and 20 847 000 effective reads were obtained from the test and control groups, respectively. In total, 373 known and 399 novel miRNAs were detected in the test group, and 358 known and 232 novel miRNAs were uncovered in the control group. A total of 35 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the test group compared to the control group, including 10 up-regulated miRNAs and 25 down-regulated miRNAs. Of these miRNAs, miR-223 exhibited the highest degree of up-regulation with an approximately 3-fold increase in expression, whereas miR-26a exhibited the most decreased expression level (more than 2-fold). The RNAhybrid software predicted 18 801 genes as potential targets of these 35 miRNAs. Furthermore, several immune response and signal transduction pathways, including the RIG-I-like receptor signalling pathway, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway and Notch signal pathway, were enriched in these predicted targets. In summary, this study provided experimental evidence for the mechanism underlying the regulation of bovine mastitis by miRNAs and showed that miRNAs might be involved in signal pathways during S. agalactiae-induced mastitis.
Biomimetic motions are helpful to underwater vehicles and new conception airplanes design. The lattice Boltzmann method with an immersed boundary method technique is used to reveal the propulsion and lift enhancement mechanism of biomimetic motions. The flow past a sphere and an ellipsoidal flapping wing were validated respectively by comparing with other numerical methods. Then a single flapping wing and three flapping wings in a tandem arrangement are accomplished respectively. It founds that the mean thrust coefficient of three plate wings is bigger than the one of the single plate wing. Three ellipsoidal wings and single ellipsoidal wing are compared. It shows that the single ellipsoidal wing has larger thrust coefficients than the three ellipsoidal wings. Ellipsoidal flapping wing and plate wing were further compared to investigate the influence of wing shape. It indicates the mean thrust coefficient of the ellipsoidal wing is bigger than the plate wing.
Introduction: Burnout rates for emergency physicians (EP) continue to be amongst the highest in medicine. One of the commonly cited sources of stress contributing to disillusionment is bureaucratic tasks that distract EPs from direct patient care in the emergency department (ED). The novel position of Physician Navigator was created to help EPs decrease their non-clinical workload during shifts, and improve productivity. Physician Navigators are non-licensed healthcare team members that assist in activities which are often clerical in nature, but directly impact patient care. This program was implemented at no net-cost to the hospital or healthcare system. Methods: In this retrospective study, 6845 clinical shifts worked by 20 EPs over 39 months from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015 were evaluated. The program was implemented on April 1, 2013. The primary objective was to quantify the effect of Physician Navigators on measures of EP productivity: patient seen per hour (Pt/hr), and turn-around-time (TAT) to discharge. Secondary objectives included examining the impact of Physician Navigators on measures of ED throughput for non-resuscitative patients: emergency department length of stay (LOS), physician-initial-assessment times (PIA), and left-without-being-seen rates (LWBS). A mixed linear model was used to evaluate changes in productivity measures between shifts with and without Physician Navigators in a clustered design, by EP. Autoregressive modelling was performed to compare ED throughput metrics before and after the implementation of Physician Navigators for non-resuscitative patients. Results: Across 20 EPs, 2469 shifts before, and 4376 shifts after April 1, 2013 were analyzed. Daily patient volumes increased 8.7% during the period with Physician Navigators. For the EPs who used Physician Navigators, Pt/hr increased by 1.07 patients per hour (0.98 to 1.16, p<0.001), and TAT to discharge decreased by 10.6 minutes (-13.2 to -8.0, p<0.001). After the implementation of the Physician Navigators, overall LOS for non-resuscitative patients decreased by 2.6 minutes (1.0%, p=0.007), and average PIA decreased by 7.4 minutes (12.0%, p<0.001). LBWS rates decreased by 43.9% (0.50% of daily patient volume, p<0.001). Conclusion: The use of a Physician Navigator was associated with increased EP productivity as measured by Pt/hr, and TAT to discharge, and reductions in ED throughput metrics for non-resuscitative patients.
Previous studies have thoroughly investigated the prevalence and risk factors for completed suicide. In marked contrast is the lack of a better understanding of attempted suicide in the elderly. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly and examine the associated factors.
Using a multi-stage cluster sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 8,399 elderly house-dwelling residents was conducted in Shanghai, China.
The two-week prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly was 0.75%. In the bivariate analysis, having no caregivers, depressive, anxiety, sad, fear, obsessive-compulsive and anger symptom, and lower scores on the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were significantly associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide in the elderly. In the multivariate analysis, sad and fear symptoms were significantly and independently associated with a higher risk of attempted suicide in the elderly.
The two-week prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly is relatively high when compared with the annualized or lifetime prevalence reported in China and foreign settings. Elderly individuals with certain mental symptoms should be targeted for suicide prevention and provided with timely mental health support.
Introduction: The Physician Navigator (PN) is a novel position created to manage patient flow in real-time at a very-high volume emergency department (ED). When paired with an emergency physician, PNs actively track patient wait times, and direct the physician to see and re-assess patients in a particular order to improve measures of emergency department efficiency, and maximize patient flow. Anecdotal evidence has shown that PNs decrease length-of-stay times for non-resuscitative patients in the setting of increased patient volumes, and without additional nursing or physician hours. The objective was to study the operational impact of PN on emergency department patient flow. Methods: A 48-month pre-/post-intervention retrospective chart review at an urban community emergency department from September 2011 to September 2015. The PN program started on March 1, 2013. The main outcome is emergency department length-of-stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes include time to physician-initial-assessment (PIA), left-without-being-seen rates (LWBS), left-against-medical-advice (LAMA), and physician satisfaction rates. Autoregressive integrated moving average models were generated for Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) 2 to 5 patients to quantify the immediate impact of the intervention on the outcome levels, and whether the impact was sustained over time. Results: Interim results are provided. 399,958 patients attended the ED during the study period. Daily patient volumes increased 11.2% during the post-intervention period. There were no significant increases in the number of physicians shifts/day, and physician hours/day during the post-intervention period. Post-intervention, for CTAS 2-5 patients, there was a reduction in average LOS by 0.04 hours/PN (p<0.05), and 90th-percentile LOS by 0.14 hours/PN (p<0.05). For secondary outcomes, there was a decrease in overall average PIA by 6.37 minutes/PN (p<0.05), and 90th-percentile PIA by 8.29 minutes/PN (p<0.05). LWBS rates decreased by 40.8% (p<0.05). There were no significant changes in LAMA rates. Conclusion: The implementation of Physician Navigators is associated with significant reductions in LOS, PIA, and LWBS rates for non-resuscitative patients at a very-high volume emergency department.
We consider a distributed storage system employing some existing regenerate codes where the storage nodes are scattered in an optical wireless network. The data collector (DC) connects to the storage nodes via orthogonal channels and downloads data symbols from these nodes. In the existing data reconstruction schemes for distributed storage systems, the data collector downloads all symbols from a subset of the storage nodes. Such a full downloading approach becomes inefficient in wireless networks since due to fading, the wireless channels may not offer sufficient bandwidths for full downloading. Moreover, full downloading is also less power efficient than partial downloading. Given a coding scheme employed by the wireless distributed storage system, we propose a partial downloading scheme that allows downloading a portion of the symbols from any storage node. We formulate a cross-layer wireless resource allocation problem for data reconstruction in distributed storage systems employing such partial downloading. To derive the fundamental properties of partial downloading as well as to reduce the complexity of wireless resource allocation, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data reconstructability for partial downloading, in terms of the numbers of downloaded symbols from the storage nodes.We also propose channel and power allocation schemes for partial downloading in wireless distributed storage systems.
The purpose of distributed storage is to store a data file in a distributed manner where the individual storage nodes may be unreliable. This has attracted significant research interests in both communication and computer science fields. The original data file is firstly encoded into multiple coded symbols,which are stored into various storage nodes. Note that, encoded by advanced coding schemes, the original data can be reconstructed if the number of collected data symbols is no less than the number of original data symbols.
Recently, two data encoding schemes for distributed data storage have been proposed, based on rateless coding and network coding [1, 2]. A criterion for distributed data storage is the transmission bandwidth for the reconstruction of the original data file and the repair of a failed storage node. For data reconstruction, a data collector (DC) downloads the symbols in some storage nodes to reconstruct the data. For node regeneration, assuming that a storage node has failed, a new storage node downloads the symbols from some other storage nodes to regenerate the symbols in the failed node.