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Bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are prevalent, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often characterized by early onset and chronic course. When comorbid, OCD and BD can determine a more pernicious course of illness, posing therapeutic challenges for clinicians. Available reports on prevalence and clinical characteristics of comorbidity between BD and OCD showed mixed results, likely depending on the primary diagnosis of analyzed samples.
We assessed prevalence and clinical characteristics of BD comorbidity in a large international sample of patients with primary OCD (n = 401), through the International College of Obsessive–Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) snapshot database, by comparing OCD subjects with vs without BD comorbidity.
Among primary OCD patients, 6.2% showed comorbidity with BD. OCD patients with vs without BD comorbidity more frequently had a previous hospitalization (p < 0.001) and current augmentation therapies (p < 0.001). They also showed greater severity of OCD (p < 0.001), as measured by the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).
These findings from a large international sample indicate that approximately 1 out of 16 patients with primary OCD may additionally have BD comorbidity along with other specific clinical characteristics, including more frequent previous hospitalizations, more complex therapeutic regimens, and a greater severity of OCD. Prospective international studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Psychiatric disorders are often considered the leading cause of violence. This may be due to a stereotype created by media and general opinion.
The Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) was used to evaluate the severity of aggressive and violent behaviors in 400 patients who attended a post-acute psychiatric service in Milan from 2014 to 2016 and suffered from different psychiatric disorders. The psychopathological clinical picture was evaluated by Clinical Global Impression (CGI). The study also assessed the possible correlation between epidemiologic and sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, and aggression and violence.
Of the total number of subjects, 21.50% showed a MOAS score >0, 11.50% presented mild aggression (0–10 MOAS weighted score), 9% moderate aggression (11–20), and 1% severe aggression (MOAS >20). With respect to violent behaviors, 16% of patients showed a score >0 in one MOAS subscale other than verbal aggression according to violence definition. The severity of clinical picture seemed to be related to higher weighted MOAS score. Multivariate testing of different sociodemographic and clinical variables showed that violence was related to unemployment status, and significantly correlated to compulsory admission (TSO), suicide attempts (TS), and personality disorders, while the severity of clinical psychiatric picture seemed to play a secondary role.
Results have shown that personality disorders and sociodemographic factors, including economic factors, seem to be major determinants of violence among patients diagnosed with mental disorders.
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