Iron and iodine deficiencies are among the most common forms of nutritional deficiencies globally, and cause detrimental effects on mother and child. In developing countries, strategies to address these problems rarely use preventative dietary approaches. This cross-sectional study aims to ascertain whether dietary diversity score and dietary patterns can predict the associated risk of iron and iodine deficiencies in mother-toddler dyads during dry/lean season in northern Ghana. Data were collected from women 15-49 yrs (n=118), and their toddlers (6-23 months, n=121). Dyads dietary diversity score and dietary patterns were calculated from their food intake recall. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine whether dietary diversity score, dietary patterns, and sociodemographic factors predict higher odds of iron and iodine deficiencies in mother-toddler dyads. Dietary diversity score and dietary patterns predicted iron and iodine deficiencies associated risk. Compared to Dietary diversity score ≥4, women with Dietary diversity score <4 have higher odds of iron deficiency (AOR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.03-3.21) and iodine deficiency (AOR: 9.73, 95% CI: 3.19-29.67). Two dietary patterns emerged in principal component analyses, “rural elites diet” predicted iron deficiency risk in mothers (AOR: 8.65, 95% CI: 1.76-42.39) while “indigenous diet” predicted iodine deficiency risk (AOR: 11.41, 95% CI: 1.36-95.97) in mothers only. The associated risk of iron and iodine deficiencies in vulnerable populations may be predicted by diet-based measures in northern Ghana during dry/lean season. We recommend further research into dietary diversity score and dietary patterns to predict iron and iodine status of mother-toddler dyads in Ghana.