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FFQ are often used to estimate food and nutrient intakes to rank individuals by their level of intake. We evaluated the relative validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ created for use in Tanzania by comparing it with two 24 h diet recalls.
We measured relative validity of the FFQ with deattenuated energy-adjusted rank correlations for nutrients, deattenuated rank correlations for food groups, and performed a cross-classification analysis of energy-adjusted nutrient quartiles using percentage of agreement and Bland–Altman analysis.
Interviews were conducted in 2014 in participants’ homes in Ukonga, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
We surveyed 317 adults aged 40 years or older from the general public.
Deattenuated energy-adjusted rank correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from −0·03 for riboflavin to 0·41 for percentage of energy from carbohydrates, with a median correlation of 0·21. Coefficients for food groups ranged from 0·00 for root vegetables to 0·51 for alcohol, with a median of 0·35. Relative to the average of the two 24 h diet recalls, the FFQ overestimated energy intake and intakes of all nutrients and food groups, other than tea, with ratios among nutrients ranging from 1·34 for SFA to 7·08 for vitamin A; and among food groups from 0·92 for tea to 9·00 for fruit. The percentage of participants classified into the same nutrient intake quartile ranged from 23 % for SFA to 32 % for both niacin and pantothenic acid, with a median of 28 %.
The FFQ performed moderately well in urban Tanzanian adults.
The purpose of the present paper is to assess the relationship between food insecurity and food consumption patterns, anthropometric measures and serum micronutrient levels in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.
A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out between March and May of 2005.
Rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.
Analysis was restricted to 1014 adults aged 15–44 years with children and complete data.
A large majority of the participants (91 %) reported some kind of food insecurity. Food insecurity was significantly associated with age, marital status and occupation. Participants reporting food insecurity were significantly less likely to frequently consume animal products, fruits and vegetables compared with participants categorized as food secure. Women categorized as experiencing individual food insecurity had a larger waist circumference than food-secure women (P = 0·026) while the mean BMI of women appeared to decline if they had a child who was food insecure (P = 0·038). There were no observed differences in serum micronutrient levels by food insecurity status.
Food insecurity is highly prevalent and associated with food consumption patterns, waist circumference and BMI of women in rural Tanzania. Further studies should apply self-report measures in assessing food insecurity to larger and more diversified populations.
The objective of the present study was to assess the construct validity, criterion-related validity and internal consistency of the Radimer/Cornell food insecurity measure for use in rural Tanzania.
A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted from March to May 2005. Key adaptations to the nine-item Radimer/Cornell items included translation to Swahili, replacing the term ‘balanced diet’ with ‘full meal’ and constructing the items as questions rather than statements. Factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha were used to assess validity and reliability, respectively.
Rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.
Analysis was restricted to data from 530 women aged 15–44 years who had children under 5 years old.
Principal component factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution: (1) altered eating pattern at household level and (2) altered eating pattern at child level. The two factors accounted for 66·2 % of the total variance. The subscales developed had good reliability. Internal consistency of the scales was 0·853 and 0·784 for food insecurity at household level and food insecurity at child level, respectively. Only 14·0 % of the women reported to be food-secure and 86·0 % reported some kind of food insecurity. The Radimer/Cornell food insecurity measure showed significant associations with selected sociodemographic factors in the expected directions. There was also an association with the NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and CCHIP (Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project) indicators.
Our findings suggest that the adapted Radimer/Cornell measure may have some utility in assessing food insecurity in settings like rural Tanzania.
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