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The focus of interventions for adults living with HIV (ALH) in Nigeria has been mostly on prevention and provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) with little consideration to nutrition-related matters. Therefore, the present study aimed to improve the quality of life (QoL) and anthropometric status of ALH in Abeokuta, Nigeria.
A quasi-experimental design where 200 conveniently selected participants were stratified by gender and duration on ART. The intervention group (n 100) received the nutrition education programme (NEP) for 12 weeks. The control group received a brochure on nutrition guidelines for ALH. Socio-biographical information, QoL and anthropometric status were assessed using previously validated questionnaires and standard techniques at baseline, week 12 and week 24. Generalised least squares (GLS) regression analysis was used for group comparisons. Anthropometric status was summarised by gender.
Two tertiary hospitals in Abeokuta, Nigeria.
The NEP led to significant improvement in the physical functioning (week 12 and 24: P < 0·01), role limitation due to physical health (week 12: P = 0·01; week 24: P = 0·002) and pain (week 12: P = 0·01) constructs of the QoL of the intervention group compared with the control group. There was no significant difference (P = 0·07) between the mean weights of the two groups at baseline.
There was a significant improvement at week 12 and week 24 in the QoL of the intervention participants. The results indicated that a tailored NEP could make a positive contribution to the management of ALH.
To evaluate the effect of a participant-customised nutrition education programme on glycated Hb (HbA1c), blood lipids, blood pressure, BMI and dietary behaviours in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A randomised controlled trial. The control group (n 41) received education materials. The intervention group (n 41) received the same education materials and participated in eight weekly (2–2·5 h) group nutrition education sessions and follow-up sessions. Outcomes were assessed at 6 and 12 months. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. ANCOVA compared the groups (adjustments for baseline values, age, sex and clinic).
Two community health centres, Moretele sub-district (North West Province), South Africa.
Adults (aged 40–70 years) with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c ≥8 %.
Differences in HbA1c (primary outcome) were −0·64 % (P=0·15) at 6 months and −0·63 % (P=0·16) at 12 months in favour of the intervention group. Starchy-food intake was significantly lower in the intervention group, 9·3 v. 10·8 servings/d (P=0·005) at 6 months and 9·9 v. 11·9 servings/d (P=0·017) at 12 months. Median energy intake was significantly lower in the intervention group at 12 months (5988 v. 6946 kJ/d, P=0·017). No significant group differences in BMI, lipid profile, blood pressure and intakes of macronutrients, vegetables and fruits were observed.
Nutrition education was not efficacious on HbA1c; however, it improved specific dietary behaviours. Group education and hands-on activities appeared to contribute to the improvement. Optimal goal setting and self-efficacy training/assessment could benefit future nutrition education programmes for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in resource-limited settings.
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