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222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among accessions revealed 16 genetic groups structured into three clusters, supporting the classical eco-geographic grouping of grape cultivars: occidentalis, pontica and orientalis. French cultivars appeared to be distinct and showed close affinity to the wild progenitor, ssp. sylvestris from south-western France (Pyrenees) and Tunisia, probably reflecting the origin and domestication history of many of the old wine cultivars from France. There was appreciable level of differentiation between table and wine grape cultivars, and the Muscat types were somewhat distinct within the wine grapes. Contingency χ2 analysis indicated significant heterogeneity in allele frequencies among groups at all loci. The observed heterozygosities for different groups ranged from 0·625 to 0·9 with an overall average of 0·771. Genetic relationships among groups suggested hierarchical differentiation within cultivated grape. The gene diversity analysis indicated narrow divergence among groups and that most variation was found within groups (∼85%). Partitioning of diversity suggested that the remaining variation is somewhat structured hierarchically at different levels of differentiation. The overall organization of genetic diversity suggests that the germplasm of cultivated grape represents a single complex gene pool and that its structure is determined by strong artificial selection and a vegetative mode of reproduction.
We examined whether or not the effect of elevated blood lead levels on children's psychomotor development was modified by their nutritional status.
Anthropometry, developmental quotients (DQs), blood lead levels and haemoglobin were measured in lead exposed and unexposed children with different levels of nutritional status. Social background and maternal height and verbal intelligence were also measured. Testers, anthropometrists and interviewers established reliabilities with a trainer before the study began.
Children were from two suburban areas in Kingston, Jamaica. All measurements on the children were carried out at a research unit. Social background and maternal measurements were carried out at the children's homes.
The exposed group comprised 58 children (3–6 years) attending the same preschool which was situated in a lead contaminated environment. The unexposed group comprised 53 children attending a nearby preschool without lead contamination.
The exposed children had significantly higher blood lead levels and lower DQs, and their homes had poorer facilities than the unexposed children. The deficit in DQ was greater (10.6 points) among children with weight for height less than –1 SD (National Center for Health Statistics references) than among better nourished Children (2 points).
Undernourished children exposed to lead may have more serious developmental deficits than better nourished children.
Stocker cattle operations are an important part of the nation's cattle industry. Many producers do not realize the profit potential in new technological advances, and some feed their cattle on uneconomic planes of nutrition. Stocker cattle producers can benefit from results of animal science and agronomic research if they are presented in a framework suited to use in decision-making. Analyses prepared by agricultural economists often ignore many of the factors determining gain because of lack of data and complexity of the relationships. Thus, a system for economic analysis that accounts for more factors and improves growth predictions would be highly useful. The purpose of this study is to develop and provide computerized analytical procedures to estimate physical and economic results of alternative stocker production systems.
The working of the Mental Health (Scotland) Act 1960 is examined by analysis of compulsory admissions both nationally and to one Glasgow hospital. Comparisons are drawn with England and Wales. Despite a six-fold increase in admissions since 1945 the use of compulsory powers has remained almost constant. It is suggested that an annual number of 45 compulsory admissions per 100,000 population may represent an inevitable basic level as foreseen by the Royal Commission in 1957. Section 31 (‘Emergency Recommendation’) secures 80 per cent of Part IV admissions, and Section 24 (‘Full Recommendation’) is employed in only 25 per cent. Part V accounts for only 300 admissions per annum, mostly remands for psychiatric report. Two suggestions are made for possible future amendments to the Act.
The linear response and high information gain of the electronographic process make it an important new technique for the observation of monochromatic intensity distributions in planetary nebulae. Preliminary results for NGC 6720, obtained with the U.S. Navy electronic camera and the 61-inch astrometric reflector, are presented.
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