In this paper we classify finite-dimensional flexible division algebras over the real numbers. We show that every such algebra is either (i) commutative and of dimension one or two, (ii) a slight variant of a noncommutative Jordan algebra of degree two, or (iii) an algebra defined by putting a certain product on the 3 × 3 complex skew-Hermitian matrices of trace zero. A precise statement of this result is given at the end of this section after we have developed the necessary background and terminology. In Section 3 we show that, if one also assumes that the algebra is Lie-admissible, then the structure follows rapidly from results in  and .
All algebras in this paper will be assumed to be finite-dimensional. A nonassociative algebra A is called flexible if (xy)x = x(yx) for all x, y ∈ A.