Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The physics of massive stars depends (at least) on convection, mass loss by stellar winds, rotation, magnetic fields and multiplicity. We briefly discuss the impact of the first three processes on the stellar yields trying to identify some guidelines for future works.
We give a brief overview of where we stand with respect to some old and new questions bearing on how massive stars evolve and end their lifetime. We focus on the following key points that are further discussed by other contributions during this conference: convection, mass losses, rotation, magnetic field and multiplicity. For purpose of clarity, each of these processes are discussed on its own but we have to keep in mind that they are all interacting between them offering a large variety of outputs, some of them still to be discovered.
The Geneva evolutionary code has been modified to study the advanced stages (Ne, O, Si burnings) of rotating massive stars. Here we present the results of four 20 M⊙ stars at solar metallicity with initial rotational velocities, vini, of 0, 100, 200 and 300 km/s in order to show the crucial role of rotation in stellar evolution. As already known, rotation increases mass loss and core masses . A fast rotating 20 M⊙ star has the same central evolution as a non-rotating 26 M⊙. Rotation also increases strongly net total metal yields. Furthermore, rotation changes the SN type so that more SNIb are predicted (see  and ). Finally, SN1987A-like supernovae progenitor colors can be explained in a single rotating star scenario.
The role of Wolf-Rayet and asymptotic giant branch stars in the production of the Solar System fluorine abundance is analyzed. It is shown that both these stars can be important sources of galactic fluorine. However, the uncertainties affecting the predictions, especially those from asymptotic giant branch stars, do not allow to give quantitative figures yet.
Rotation appears as a dominant effect in massive star evolution. It largely affects all the model outputs: inner structure, tracks, lifetimes, isochrones, surface compositions, blue to red supergiant ratios, etc. At lower metallicities, the effects of rotational mixing are larger; also, more stars may reach critical velocity, even if the initial distribution of rotational velocities is the same.
We use the rotating stellar models described in the paper by A. Maeder & G. Meynet in this volume to consider the effects of rotation on the evolution of the most massive stars into and during the Wolf–Rayet phase, and on the post-Main Sequence evolution of intermediate mass stars. The two main results of this discussion are the following. First, we show that rotating models are able to account for the observed properties of the Wolf–Rayet stellar populations at solar metallicity. Second, at low metallicities, the inclusion of stellar rotation in the calculation of chemical yields can lead to a longer time delay between the release of oxygen and nitrogen into the interstellar medium following an episode of star formation, since stars of lower masses (compared to non-rotating models) can synthesize primary N. Qualitatively, such an effect may be required to explain the relative abundances of N and O in extragalactic metal–poor environments, particularly at high redshifts.
The dynamical shear instability is an important mixing process in the advanced stages of the evolution of massive stars. We calculated different models of 15 M⊙ with an initial rotational velocity, vini = 300 km/s to investigate its efficiency. We found that the dynamical shear instability has a timescale shorter than oxygen burning timescale and that it slightly enlarges the convective zones and smoothens the omega gradients throughout the evolution. However, its effect is too localized to slow down the core of the star.
Rotation affects all the outputs of the evolution and nucleosynthesis of massive stars. We discuss the evolution of the rotational velocities, the internal ω-gradients, the tracks in the H-R diagram, the age determinations, the evolution of the surface N/C abundance ratios, the B/R number ratios of blue to red supergiants and the lifetimes in the WR stages.
We calculate a grid of star models with and without the effects of axial rotation for stars in the mass range between 2 and 60 M⊙ for the metallicity Z = 10–5. We find that in these models primary nitrogen is produced during the He-burning phase by rotational diffusion of 12C into the H-buraing shell. The intermediate mass stars of very low Z are the main producers of primary 14N, but massive stars also contribute to this production; no significant primary nitrogen is made in models at metallicity Z = 0.004 or above. We calculate the chemical yields in He, C, N, O and heavy elements and discuss the chemical evolution of the CNO elements at very low Z. Remarkably, the C/O vs. O/H diagram is mainly sensitive to the interval of stellar masses, while the N/O vs. O/H diagram is mainly sensitive to the average rotation of the stars contributing to the element synthesis.
Stellar winds contribute together with supernovae explosions to the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. We recall how the metallicity dependence of the stellar winds implies a metallicity dependence of the stellar yields. We show that an increase of the initial angular velocity has different effects than an increase of the mass loss rates. Wolf-Rayet stars appear as important sources of 19F and 26Al. They are the favoured candidates for the 22Ne anomaly observed in the Galactic cosmic ray sources. They may also have injected into the proto-solar nebula short-lived radionuclides as 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 107Pd and 205Pb.
Rotation brings significant surface He- and N-enhancements. The excesses are higher for higher masses and rotation. Rotating stellar models may account for the nitrogen enhancements observed at the surface of blue supergiants.
The material used to form the CEMP-no stars presents signatures of processing by the CNO cycle and by He-burning from a previous stellar generation called spinstars. We compare the composition of the ejecta (wind + supernova) of a spinstar model to observed abundances of CEMP-no stars. We show that observed abundances as well as the isotope ratio 12C/13C may be reproduced by the spinstar ejecta if we assume different mass cuts when adding the supernova material to the wind ejecta.
Massive stars pulsate in various modes; radial and nonradial p-modes, g-modes, and strange modes including oscillatory convective (non-adiabatic g−) modes. Those modes are responsible for the light and velocity variations of β Cephei stars, slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, and α Cyg variables. The instability mechanisms for these pulsations are discussed. We also discuss the relation between the evolution of massive stars and the excitation of strange modes, which are considered responsible for the pulsation in most of the α Cyg variables. The surface He and CNO abundances of hotter α Cyg variables seem to indicate that the Ledoux criterion of convection is better than the Schwarzschild criterion, although the latter is extensively used in stellar evolution computations.
Stellar evolution models predict that rotation induces the mixing of chemical species, with the subsequent surface abundance anomalies relative to single non-rotating models, even during the main sequence (MS) evolution. The lack of measurable nitrogen surface enrichment in MS rotating stars, such as Be stars, has been interpreted as being in conflict with evolutionary models (e.g. Lennon et al. 2005; Hunter et al. 2008). In order to have an insight on the kind of ambient we do or we do not expect to find enriched rotating stars, we use our new population synthesis code, to produce synthetic intermediate-mass stellar populations fully accounting for stellar rotation effects, and study their evolution in time.
We produced a model grid of rotating main and post-main sequence stars with the Geneva Stellar Evolution Code (GENEC). The initial chemical composition is tailored to compare with observations of early OB type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the grid covers stellar masses in the range of 7 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 15 and initial velocity between 0 km s−1 ≤ v sin(i) ≤ 300 km s−1. The model grid has been used to determine the changes in the surface Nitrogen abundances during the star evolution and the results have been compared with observations.
Massive stars play a key role in environments with very different metallicities. To interpret the role of massive stars in these systems we have to know their properties at different metallicities. The Local Group offers an excellent laboratory to this aim.
Magnetic fields play a significant role in the evolution of massive stars. About 7% of massive stars are found to be magnetic at a level detectable with current instrumentation (Wade et al. 2013) and only a few magnetic O stars are known. Detecting magnetic field in O stars is particularly challenging because they only have few, often broad, lines to measure the field, which leads to a deficit in the knowledge of the basic magnetic properties of O stars. We present new spectropolarimetric Narval observations of ζ Ori A. We also provide a new analysis of both the new and older data taking binarity into account. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A. We identify that it belongs to ζ Ori Aa and characterize it.
Magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) from observations of four Stokes parameters can uncover new information that is of interest to the evolution and structure of magnetic fields of intermediate and high-mass stars. Our MDI study of the chemically peculiar star HD 24712 from four Stokes parameter observations, obtained with the HARPSpol instrument at the 3.6-m ESO telescope, revealed a magnetic field with strong dipolar component and weak small-scale contributions. This finding gives evidence for the hypothesis that old Ap stars have predominantly dipolar magnetic fields.
We perform mode identification for the frequency peaks detected in the light variation of HD 21071 including the effects of rotation via the traditional approximation. We find the angular numbers (ℓ, m) for all observed frequencies and limit the range of the rotational velocity. In the next step, we make an attempt towards seismic modelling of the star in order to constrain its global parameters.