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Peer review is a critical component toward facilitating a robust science in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology. Peer review exists beyond academic publishing in organizations, university departments, grant agencies, classrooms, and many more work contexts. Reviewers are responsible for judging the quality of research conducted and submitted for evaluation. Furthermore, they are responsible for treating authors and their work with respect, in a supportive and developmental manner. Given its central role in our profession, it is curious that we do not have formalized review guidelines or standards and that most of us never receive formal training in peer reviewing. To support this endeavor, we are proposing a competency framework for peer review. The purpose of the competency framework is to provide a definition of excellent peer reviewing and guidelines to reviewers for which types of behaviors will lead to good peer reviews. By defining these competencies, we create clarity around expectations for peer review, standards for good peer reviews, and opportunities for training the behaviors required to deliver good peer reviews. We further discuss how the competency framework can be used to improve peer reviewing and suggest additional steps forward that involve suggestions for how stakeholders can get involved in fostering high-quality peer reviewing.
We develop and validate a novel experimental design that builds a bridge between experimental research on the theory of spatial voting and the literature on measuring policy positions from text. Our design utilizes established text-scaling techniques and their corresponding coding schemes to communicate candidates’ numerical policy positions via verbal policy statements. This design allows researchers to investigate the relationship between candidates’ policy stances and voter choice in a purely text-based context. We validate our approach with an online survey experiment. Our results generalize previous findings in the literature and show that proximity considerations are empirically prevalent in purely text-based issue framing scenarios. The design we develop is broad and portable, and we discuss how it adds to current experimental designs, as well as suggest several implications and possible routes for future research.
Effective community engagement in T3–T4 research is widespread, however, similar stakeholder involvement is missing in T1–T2 research. As part of an effort to embed community stakeholders in T1–T2 research, an academic community partnered team conducted discussion groups with researchers to assess perspectives on (1) barriers/challenges to including community stakeholders in basic science, (2) skills/training required for stakeholders and researchers, and (3) potential benefits of these activities. Engaging community in basic science research was perceived as challenging but with exciting potential to incorporate “real-life” community health priorities into basic research, resulting in a new full-spectrum translational research model.
Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria parasitize pinniped pups in various locations worldwide. Four species have been described, two of which parasitize pinniped pups in the southern hemisphere: Uncinaria hamiltoni parasitizes Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis from the South American coast, and Uncinaria sanguinis parasitizes Neophoca cinerea from the Australian coast. However, their geographical ranges and host specificity are unknown. Uncinaria spp. are morphologically similar, but molecular analyses have allowed the recognition of new species in the genus Uncinaria. We used nuclear genetic markers (internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA) and a mitochondrial genetic marker (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Uncinaria spp. parasitizing A. australis and O. flavescens from South American coasts (Atlantic and Pacific coasts). We compared our sequences with published Uncinaria sequences. A Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis was also used to delimit species, and principal component analysis was used to compare morphometry among Uncinaria specimens. Parasites were sampled from A. australis from Peru (12°S), southern Chile (42°S), and the Uruguayan coast, and from O. flavescens from northern Chile (24°S) and the Uruguayan coast. Morphometric differences were observed between Uncinaria specimens from both South American coasts and between Uncinaria specimens from A. australis in Peru and southern Chile. Phylogenetic and GMYC analyses suggest that south-eastern Pacific otariid species harbour U. hamiltoni and an undescribed putative species of Uncinaria. However, more samples from A. australis and O. flavescens are necessary to understand the phylogenetic patterns of Uncinaria spp. across the South Pacific.
Conservation of rare ungulates requires reliable population size estimates and distribution maps for prioritizing investments and assessing the effectiveness of conservation measures. We used both camera trapping and a random encounter model approach, and faecal pellet group counts, to update the range and population size of the Bawean deer Axis kuhlii in the Bawean Island Nature Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary, Indonesia. We studied 2-month periods to fulfil the assumption of population closure. Both methods provided similar population density estimates (higher in the dry season) of c. 227–416 individuals. The estimated range of the species is significantly narrower than previously reported. The main threats (habitat loss as a result of illegal logging, and disturbance by dogs and hunters) are ongoing. Based on these results we suggest that the species should retain its Critically Endangered status on the IUCN Red List.
We present the observed “continuum” levels of polarization as a function of time for four well-observed Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P; Fig. 1), the class of SNe decisively determined to arise from red supergiant stars (Smartt 2009). All four objects show temporally increasing degrees of polarization through the end of the photospheric phase, with some exhibiting early-time polarization that challenge existing models (e.g., Dessart and Hillier 2011) to reproduce. A fundamental ejecta asymmetry is present in this photometrically diverse sample of type II SNe, and it probably takes different forms (e.g., 56Ni blobs/fingers, large scale deformation). We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311.
The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
We present preliminary results of a detailed chemical abundance analysis for a sample of solar-type stars known to exhibit excess infrared emission associated with dusty debris disks. Our sample of 28 stars was selected based on results from the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Spitzer Legacy Program, for the purpose of investigating whether the stellar atmospheres have been polluted with planetary material, which could indicate that the metallicity enhancement in stars with planets is due to metal-rich infall in the later stages of star and planet formation. The preliminary results presented here consist of precise abundances for 15 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for half of the stars in our sample. We find that none of the stars investigated so far exhibit the expected trend of increasing elemental abundance with increasing condensation temperature, which would result from the stars having accreted planetary debris. Rather, the slopes of linear least-squares fits to the abundance data are either negative or consistent with zero. In both cases, our results may indicate that, like the Sun, the debris disk host stars are deficient in refractory elements, a possible signature of terrestrial and/or gas giant planet formation.
Legislation and practice of involuntary hospital admission vary
substantially among European countries, but differences in outcomes have
not been studied.
To explore patients' views following involuntary hospitalisation in
different European countries.
In a prospective study in 11 countries, 2326 consecutive involuntary
patients admitted to psychiatric hospital departments were interviewed
within 1 week of admission; 1809 were followed up 1 month and 1613 3
months later. Patients' views as to whether the admission was right were
the outcome criterion.
In the different countries, between 39 and 71% felt the admission was
right after 1 month, and between 46 and 86% after 3 months. Females,
those living alone and those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia had more
negative views. Adjusting for confounding factors, differences between
countries were significant.
International differences in legislation and practice may be relevant to
outcomes and inform improvements in policies, particularly in countries
with poorer outcomes.
Two species of Proctoeces Odhner, 1911 have been described in marine organisms from Chile: P. humboldti George-Nascimento & Quiroga (1983), parasitizing the gonads of keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.), and P. chilensis Oliva (1984), an intestinal parasite of Sicyases sanguineus (Teleostei); both species were subsequently considered as P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960). To assist in the resolution of the taxonomic identification of Proctoeces species in marine organisms from Chile, phylogenetic studies using DNA sequences from the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene were performed. Several specimens of P. lintoni were isolated from keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.) and clingfish (S. sanguineus) from Bahia San Jorge (23°40′S) and Bahia Concepción (36°50′S). Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using three different approaches: a neighbour-joining (NJ), a maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). The phylogenetic analysis confirms that specimens of Proctoeces obtained from keyhole limpets and those specimens from the clingfish are in fact the same species. We prefer to consider our specimens as Proctoeces cf. lintoni, as the morphology of Proctoeces appears to be of doubtful value and genetic information about P. lintoni Siddiqi & Cable (1960) is not available. In addition, our results strongly suggest that there are at least three species in this genus.
This study gives a first qualitative and quantitative record of the parasitic infracommunities in two deep-sea fish species inhabiting the locality of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. In December of 2002 a total of 12 individuals of Coelorynchus chilensis and 35 Notacanthus sexspinis was obtained as by-catch of a shrimp Haliporoides diomedeae fishery at around 1000 m depth. The majority of the individuals of both species were infected at least by one parasitic taxon. Forty-five parasites were collected from C. chilensis including larval cestodes, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Grillotia sp., larval nematodes Anisakis sp., adult digeneans Dinosoma sp., Brachyphallus sp., copepods Protochondia cf. longicauda and myxozoa Myxidium sp. Twenty-two parasitic individuals were collected from N. sexspinis belonging to adult digeneans Lecithochirium sp., and Accacladium sp. (without eggs, immature), larval cestodes Hepatoxylon trichiuri, larval nematodes Anisakis sp. and myxozoa Ceratomyxa sp. Most of the parasites showed a low prevalence and abundance in both host species, except for Myxidium sp., Ceratomyxa sp., Dinosoma sp. and Brachyphallus sp. The parasites Hepatoxylon trichiuri and Anisakis sp. were the only shared taxa. These infracommunities are low in richness, diversity and abundance compared to shallow water fish–parasites communities. Nevertheless the numeric properties of infracommunities are not reliable due to sample size. Given the additional difficulties with reliable sampling of deep-sea fish, these results should not have too much significance attributed to them. The relevance of this study is simply the recognition of parasites that infect the deep-sea fish of the families Macrouridae and Notacanthidae in the southern hemisphere.
The Endangered Corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus was extirpated from Corsica in the early 1970s, at which time the Sardinian population fell to <250 individuals. The Sardinian authorities agreed to protect this subspecies and to secure its reintroduction in Corsica, a natural choice, considering ethological and historical descriptions. Since the beginning of 1985, when the first deer destined for captive breeding and eventual reintroduction arrived in Corsica, the population increased from 13 Sardinian founders to 106 captive animals under constant monitoring in three enclosures (Quenza, Casabianda and Ania di Fium'Orbu). The sites of Quenza, Chisà and Santo Pietro di Venaco were selected by the Regional Nature Park of Corsica for the reintroduction into the wild that began in 1998. Currently the size of the whole Corsican population is c. 250 individuals. These deer are still closely monitored and studied, both in enclosures and in the wild, to secure the long-term conservation of this subspecies. The Corsican and Sardinian populations together now total slightly >1,000, and the subspecies could therefore be downgraded to Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.