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Both childhood maltreatment and insecure attachment are known to be associated with depression in adulthood. The extent insecure attachment increases the risk of adult clinical depression over that of parental maltreatment among women in the general population is explored, using those at high risk because of their selection for parental maltreatment together with an unselected sample.
Semi-structured interviews and investigator-based measures are employed.
Insecure attachment is highly associated with parental maltreatment with both contributing to the risk of depression, with attachment making a substantial independent contribution. Risk of depression did not vary by type of insecure attachment, but the core pathways of the dismissive and enmeshed involved the whole life course in terms of greater experience of a mother's physical abuse and their own anger as an adult, with both related to adult depression being more often provoked by a severely threatening event involving humiliation rather than loss. By contrast, depression of the insecure fearful and withdrawn was more closely associated with both current low self-esteem and an inadequately supportive core relationship. In terms of depression taking a chronic course, insecure attachment was again a key risk factor, but with this now closely linked with the early experience of a chaotic life style but with this involving only a modest number of women.
Both insecure attachment and parental maltreatment contribute to an increased risk of depression with complex effects involving types of insecure attachment.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
Pharmacological antioxidant vitamins have previously been investigated for a prophylactic effect against exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, large doses are often required and may lead to a state of pro-oxidation and oxidative damage. Watercress contains an array of nutritional compounds such as β-carotene and α-tocopherol which may increase protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress. The present randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that acute (consumption 2 h before exercise) and chronic (8 weeks consumption) watercress supplementation can attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress. A total of ten apparently healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, stature 179 (sd 10) cm and body mass 74 (sd 15) kg) were recruited to complete the 8-week chronic watercress intervention period (and then 8 weeks of control, with no ingestion) of the experiment before crossing over in order to compete the single-dose acute phase (with control, no ingestion). Blood samples were taken at baseline (pre-supplementation), at rest (pre-exercise) and following exercise. Each subject completed an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion following chronic and acute watercress supplementation or control. The main findings show an exercise-induced increase in DNA damage and lipid peroxidation over both acute and chronic control supplementation phases (P< 0·05 v. supplementation), while acute and chronic watercress attenuated DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and decreased H2O2 accumulation following exhaustive exercise (P< 0·05 v. control). A marked increase in the main lipid-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and xanthophyll) was observed following watercress supplementation (P< 0·05 v. control) in both experimental phases. These findings suggest that short- and long-term watercress ingestion has potential antioxidant effects against exercise-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.
Pseudoelasticity in monocrystalline Fe3Al (23 at.% Al) was investigated by room-temperature mechanical testing along the <418> tensile and compressive axes. In tension, up to ∼10% strain is recoverable whereas only ∼5% strain is recoverable in compression. Straight, parallel, surface step lines were seen to appear/disappear as the specimens were pseudoelastically loaded/unloaded. In contrast, in the plastic region (ε >10%), wavy slip lines appeared on the specimen surfaces which did not disappear upon unloading. In-situ neutron diffraction was performed during compressive straining and the intensities of several diffraction peaks increase/decrease reversibly during loading/unloading. These changes are consistent with a deformation twin which produces large crystal rotations. They could also be indicative of a phase transformation. Unfortunately, we were able to sample only a limited range of 2θ in the present investigation and, within this range, none of the new peaks that appeared during the pseudoelastic deformation were disallowed peaks for the D03 crystal structure. Therefore we are unable at this time to distinguish between the two possible mechanisms, twinning and phase transformation.
Cathodic arc deposition combined with macroparticle filtering of the plasma is an efficient and versatile method for the deposition of amorphous hard carbon films of high quality. The film properties can be tailored over a broad range by varying the energy of the carbon ions incident upon the substrate and upon the growing film by applying a pulsed bias technique. By varying the bias voltage during the deposition process specific properties of the interface, bulk film and top surface layer can be obtained. We report on nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy studies as well as stress measurements of cathodic-arc amorphous hard carbon films deposited with varied bias voltage. The investigations were performed on multilayers consisting of alternating hard and soft amorphous carbon.
Glancing-angle x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has been used to characterize the structure of Co(II) complexes adsorbed from aqueous solution on single crystal ∝-Al2O3 surfaces. The spectra reveal considerable differences in the local structure, as a function of both the crystallographic face and the orientation of the sample with respect to the beam polarization. Data analysis indicates that the predominant mode of Co chemisorption is as a tridentate CoO6 octahedral complex edge-shared with surface Al octahedra. For systems where this method is feasible, it is the technique of choice for characterizing metal ion adsorption complexes.
Simplicity of construction and operation are advantages of iTMC (ionic transition metal complex) OLEDs compared with multi-layer OLED devices. Unfortunately, lifetimes do not compare favorably with the best multi-layer devices. We have previously shown for Ru(bpy)3(PF6)2 based iTMC OLEDs that electrical drive produces emission-quenching dimers of the active species. We report evidence here that a chemical process may also be implicated in degradation of devices based on Ir(ppy)2(dtb-bpy)PF6 albeit by a very different mechanism. It appears that degradation of operating devices made with this Ir-based complex is related to current-induced heating of the organic layer, resulting in loss of the dtb-bpy ligand. (The dtb-bpy ligand is labile compared with the cyclometallated ppy ligands.) Morphological changes observed in electrically driven Ir(ppy)2(dtb-bpy)PF6 OLEDs provide evidence of substantial heating during device operation. Evidence from UV-vis spectra in the presence of an electric field as well as MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the OLED materials before and after electrical drive add support for this model of the degradation process.
Chronic diseases are major causes of death and disability and often require multiple prescribed medications for treatment and control. Public health emergencies (e.g., disasters due to natural hazards) that disrupt the availability or supply of these medications may exacerbate chronic disease or even cause death.
A repository of chronic disease pharmaceuticals and medical supplies organized for rapid response in the event of a public health emergency is desirable. However, there is no science base for determining the contents of such a repository. This study provides the first step in an evidence-based approach to inform the planning, periodic review, and revision of repositories of chronic disease medications.
Data from the 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were used to examine the prescription medication needs of persons presenting to US hospital emergency departments for chronic disease exacerbations. It was assumed that the typical distribution of cases for an emergency department will reflect the patient population treated in the days after a public health emergency. The estimated numbers of prescribed drugs for chronic conditions that represent the five leading causes of death, the five leading primary diagnoses for physician office visits, and the five leading causes of disease burden assessed by disability-adjusted life years are presented.
The 2004 NHAMCS collected data on 36,589 patient visits that were provided by 376 emergency departments. Overall, the five drug classes mentioned most frequently for emergency department visits during 2004 were narcotic analgesics (30.7 million), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (25.2 million), non-narcotic analgesics (15.2 million), sedatives and hypnotics (10.4 million), and cephalosporins (8.2 million). The drug classes mentioned most frequently for chronic conditions were: (1) for heart disease, antianginal agents/vasodilators (715,000); (2) for cancer, narcotic analgesics (53,000); (3) for stroke, non-narcotic analgesics (138,000); (4) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anti-asthmatics/bronchodilators (3.2 million); and (5) for diabetes, hypoglycemic agents (261,000). Ten medication categories were common across four or more chronic conditions.
Persons with chronic diseases have an urgent need for ongoing care and medical support after public health emergencies. These findings provide one evidence-based approach for informing public health preparedness in terms of planning for and review of the prescription medication needs of clinically vulnerable populations with prevalent chronic disease.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
Earlier work on the protective role of social support in onset and course of depressive disorder suggested that its provision might be relevant for outcome.
To evaluate volunteer befriending as an intervention among women with chronic depression in inner London.
A randomised controlled trial, with awaiting list control design, with outcome measured as Present State Examination (PSE)-based full or partial remission after one year.
A statistically significant effect upon remission was found for befriending. Other treatments monitored naturalistically did not relate to remission, nor did initial duration of chronic episode or comorbidity, but there was an association with initial PSE score. The findings are discussed in relation to standard drug-trial results and to another befriending intervention with the elderly.
The results are not unpromising. Additional trials with less restricted intake conditions, and in more naturalistic general practice settings, might confirm volunteer befriending as a useful adjunct to current treatments.
Volunteer befriending promoted remission of chronic depression when clinical and other treatment variables were controlled.
To examine the role of other psychosocial factors relevant for outcome.
Factors measured at baseline interview were examined in multivariate analyses along with psychosocial factors occurring during follow-up, such as ‘fresh-start’ experiences and new severe events and difficulties.
Fresh-start experiences and a standard attachment style were found to enhance chances of remission, with new severe stressors and markedly poor coping strategies liable to prevent it, with volunteer befriending continuing to play a role.
The positive result reported in the preceding paper is unlikely to be an artefact. However, fresh-start experiences, absence of new severe stressors and standard attachment style were more important predictors of remission. This knowledge might profitably be incorporated into the evaluation of existing treatments.