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This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices were aged according to four different protocols: shelf lifetime, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination at ambient temperature, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination, and elevated temperature (65 °C) and daylight outdoor weathering under sunlight. The results generated in this study allow us to outline several general conclusions related to PCDTBT-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The results herein reported can be considered as practical guidance for the realization of stabilization approaches in BHJ solar cells containing PCDTBT.
An efficient and robust method to measure vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2 in dried blood spots (DBS) has been developed and applied in the pan-European multi-centre, internet-based, personalised nutrition intervention study Food4Me. The method includes calibration with blood containing endogenous 25(OH)D3, spotted as DBS and corrected for haematocrit content. The methodology was validated following international standards. The performance characteristics did not reach those of the current gold standard liquid chromatography-MS/MS in plasma for all parameters, but were found to be very suitable for status-level determination under field conditions. DBS sample quality was very high, and 3778 measurements of 25(OH)D3 were obtained from 1465 participants. The study centre and the season within the study centre were very good predictors of 25(OH)D3 levels (P<0·001 for each case). Seasonal effects were modelled by fitting a sine function with a minimum 25(OH)D3 level on 20 January and a maximum on 21 July. The seasonal amplitude varied from centre to centre. The largest difference between winter and summer levels was found in Germany and the smallest in Poland. The model was cross-validated to determine the consistency of the predictions and the performance of the DBS method. The Pearson’s correlation between the measured values and the predicted values was r 0·65, and the sd of their differences was 21·2 nmol/l. This includes the analytical variation and the biological variation within subjects. Overall, DBS obtained by unsupervised sampling of the participants at home was a viable methodology for obtaining vitamin D status information in a large nutritional study.
On April 15, 2013, two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) exploded at the Boston Marathon and 264 patients were treated at 26 hospitals in the aftermath. Despite the extent of injuries sustained by victims, there was no subsequent mortality for those treated in hospitals. Leadership decisions and actions in major trauma centers were a critical factor in this response.
The objective of this investigation was to describe and characterize organizational dynamics and leadership themes immediately after the bombings by utilizing a novel structured sequential qualitative approach consisting of a focus group followed by subsequent detailed interviews and combined expert analysis.
Across physician leaders representing 7 hospitals, several leadership and management themes emerged from our analysis: communications and volunteer surges, flexibility, the challenge of technology, and command versus collaboration.
Disasters provide a distinctive context in which to study the robustness and resilience of response systems. Therefore, in the aftermath of a large-scale crisis, every effort should be invested in forming a coalition and collecting critical lessons so they can be shared and incorporated into best practices and preparations. Novel communication strategies, flexible leadership structures, and improved information systems will be necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality during future events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:489–495)
Precise therapeutic decision-making is vital in managing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We present an interesting approach where suspected pulmonary embolism could be confirmed by early computed tomography in cardiac arrest. Chest compressions were performed automatically by mechanical devices also during the acquisition of computed tomography data and subsequent thrombolysis.
The question concerning the local relevance of human rights can be approached from different angles. The contributors to the present volume predominantly focus on the prospects for mobilising human rights from below in order to effect social change. They do this both in theoretical terms and through case studies, or a combination of both. Some authors focus on the underlying notion of localisation and the challenges facing human rights in the context of globalisation. Others analyse the factors that render community-based human rights campaigns successful or unsuccessful, the importance of economic, social and cultural rights for advancing social justice and integration, and the question of how to overcome the ‘implementation gap’ between rhetoric and reality. Other authors in turn present concrete accounts, rich in detail and complexity, of struggles to realise rights in different parts of the world.
Looking at the manuscript as a whole, it provides an innovative and coherent account of the importance of localising human rights as well as specific ways of going about this. A primary aim of my epilogue is to reconstruct the main elements of this overall position. Before turning to this, however, I wish to draw attention to another approach to localising human rights, which is not so well developed in the present publication yet in my view equally important. This has to do with building a human rights perspective into public policy making and administrative procedures at all levels of governance as well as in institutional settings that are not directly associated with human rights. I shall begin by presenting a case related to a law reform process in Tanzania in which I was peripherally involved in the late 1990s and which illustrates what is at stake in this complementary approach to the localisation of human rights.
This present book is part of an ongoing and open-ended collaborative research project among a number of European universities and research partners in developing countries and coordinated by the Law and Development Research Group at the University of Antwerp. The intention of the project is to complement the current book with a number of case studies based on field research, using the methodology and building on the findings presented in the present volume.
As part of the project an inaugural expert seminar was organised in April 2007. This was followed by an international conference at Antwerp University in October 2008. The conference included a call for papers identifying the research questions referred to in the ‘Introduction’. Initial drafts of some of the chapters included were presented at the Antwerp conference. Subsequently the editors engaged in an intensive dialogue with the authors on their papers, and also invited additional authors to contribute to the book on themes not originally covered.
Do human rights offer real protection when disadvantaged groups invoke them at the local level in an attempt to improve their living conditions? If so, how can we make sure that the experiences of those invoking human rights at the local level have an impact on the further development of human rights (at national and other levels) so that the local relevance of human rights increases? Since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) on 10 December 1948, numerous international documents have reaffirmed human rights as global norms. This book examines what factors determine whether appeals to human rights that emanate from the local level are successful, and whether the UDHR adequately responds to threats as currently defined by relevant groups or whether a revision of some of the ideas included in the UDHR is needed in order to increase its contemporary relevance.
‘Linking human rights with ethics and globalisation represents a connection whose time has come. And yet the task is daunting.’
Mary Robinson, 2002
The vision articulated by Mary Robinson, then UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, in a lecture presented at the University of Tübingen in January 2002, epitomises an important turn in the contemporary concept of international human rights. This is the close linking of human rights with a project of global ethics, indeed the framing of human rights as a vehicle and expression of a global ethic.
A predominant feature of international relations in the post-World War II era is the codification of human rights in the form of international law. Following the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in 1948, the International Convention Against All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the International Convention Against All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (ICEDAW), the Convention Against Torture (CAT), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) all mark milestones in a process of human rights standard-setting, which has now been largely accomplished, if not entirely completed. Parallel developments have occurred in a regional context in Europe, the Americas, and Africa with the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), the American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR), and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR), respectively.
The synthesis of nanoscale superconductors with controlled geometries is extremely challenging. In this paper we present results on synthesis and characterization of one-dimensional (1D) NbSe2 superconducting nanowires/nanoribbons. Our synthesis approach includes the synthesis of 1D NbSe3 nanostructure precursors followed by nondestructive and controlled adjustment of the Se composition to formulate NbSe2. The morphology, composition and crystallinity of the synthesized 1D NbSe2 nanostructures were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Transport measurements were carried out to explore the electronic properties of these confined superconducting nanostructures.
Accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
with reliable and noninvasive methods is of great importance
for clinical practice as effective and specific antidementive
therapies become available. The aim of the study was to evaluate
the clinical relevance of event-related P300 in the early diagnosis
of AD. Thirty patients with AD, 26 patients with mild cognitive
impairment (MCI) from our Memory Clinic and 26 age-matched healthy
controls (HC) were studied with event-related P300 potentials.
Amplitudes of temporo-basal dipoles (TB-P300) were significantly
diminished in AD compared to HC and MCI. Furthermore, latencies
of temporo-superior dipoles (TS-P300) were significantly prolonged
in AD compared with HC. Sensitivity was 90.0% for the
differentiation of patients with AD from HC (specificity 79.1%)
using reduced TB-P300 amplitudes and prolonged TS-P300 latencies.
Similar results were found using Pz amplitudes as well as Fz
latencies. Our data suggest that TB-P300 amplitudes and TS-P300
latencies may be an accurate clinically available, nonexpensive,
noninvasive, and reliable marker for AD.
Si/Ge multilayer structures formed by the deposition of relatively small amounts of Ge layers (less then the critical thickness for 3D islands formation) are obtained by molecular beam epitaxy. Their structural and optical properties are investigated in detail. Appropriate growth parameter of the stacked island structures lead to significant increasing of the luminescence efficiency even at room temperature.