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Conventional depot antipsychotics can provide constant pharmacologic treatment, eliminating partial compliance and reducing relapse risk. Atypical antipsychotics, have improved clinical profiles but require daily dosing, compromising their overall effectiveness. As oral risperidone provides safety and efficacy benefits over oral haloperidol, improvements may be realized by replacing conventional with atypical agents in long-acting therapy. This report examines 50-weeks of long-acting risperidone therapy in patients previously stabilized with conventional depot antipsychotics.
A multi-center, open-label study enrolled 725 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, judged clinically stable and maintained on stable antipsychotic doses for ≥4 weeks. Assignment by clinician judgment to receive 25–75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 50 weeks followed, with performance of standard safety and efficacy assessments. Data are presented on patients receiving conventional depot antipsychotic monotherapy at study entry.
In the 188 (25.9%) patients receiving conventional depot antipsychotic monotherapy at entry, mild-to-moderate mean (±S.D.) Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-total scores improved significantly after receiving long-acting risperidone (64.2 ± 18.9 to 58.2 ± 20.3; P < 0.001). Clinical improvement of ≥20%, 40%, or 60% reduction in PANSS-total score, occurred in 52%, 34%, and 16% of patients, respectively. ESRS subjective ratings and objective physician ratings (Parkinsonism) decreased significantly (P < 0.001).
Stable patients with mild, residual symptomatology treated with conventional depot antipsychotics experienced significant improvement in psychiatric and movement disorder symptomatology following 1-year of treatment with long-acting risperidone.
Long-term forest dynamics plots in the tropics tend to be situated on stable terrain. This study investigated forest dynamics on the north coast of New Guinea where active subduction zones are uplifting lowland basins and exposing relatively young sediments to rapid weathering. We examined forest dynamics in relation to disturbance history, topography and soil nutrients based on partial re-census of the 50-ha Wanang Forest Dynamics Plot in Papua New Guinea. The plot is relatively high in cations and phosphorus but low in nitrogen. Soil nutrients and topography accounted for 29% of variation in species composition but only 4% of variation in basal area. There were few areas of high biomass and most of the forest was comprised of small-diameter stems. Approximately 18% of the forest was less than 30 y old and the annual tree mortality rate of nearly 4% was higher than in other tropical forests in South-East Asia and the neotropics. These results support the reputation of New Guinea's forests as highly dynamic, with frequent natural disturbance. Empirical documentation of this hypothesis expands our understanding of tropical forest dynamics and suggests that geomorphology might be incorporated in models of global carbon storage especially in regions of unstable terrain.
Since the discovery in 1989 that mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians, it has been possible to identify heterozygous mutation carriers at risk of having affected children. The Human Genetics Society of Australasia has produced a position statement with recommendations in relation to population-based screening for CF. These include: (1) that screening should be offered to all relatives of people with or carriers of CF (cascade testing) as well as to all couples planning to have children or who are pregnant; (2) the minimum CFTR mutation panel to be tested consists of 17 mutations which are those mutations that are associated with typical CF and occur with a frequency of 0.1% or higher among individuals diagnosed with CF in Australasia; (3) that genetic counselling is offered to all couples where both members are known to have one or two CFTR mutations and that such couples are given the opportunity to meet with a physician with expertise in the management of CF as well as a family/individual affected by the condition.
We discuss the possible magnetohydrodynamic configurations that can be realized as ‘most probable’ states compatible with the existence of certain constraints. These constraints can be either experimentally imposed constraints such as constant total electric current or magnetic flux, or constants of the motion, or both.
In this article we investigate the effect of relative humidity on dielectric charging/discharging processes in electrostatically actuated MEMS devices. The assessment procedure is based on surface potential measurements using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) and it targets in this specific work PECVD silicon nitride films in view of application in electrostatic capacitive RF MEMS switches. Charges have been injected through the AFM tip and the induced surface potential has been measured under different relative humidity levels. The impact of the charge injection duration and the bias level as well as bias polarity applied during the charge injection step, have been explored. Finally, the effect of the dielectric film thickness under different relative humidity levels has been assessed through depositing SiN films with different thicknesses.
The mechanical properties of healthy and diseased bone tissue were extensively studied in mechanical tests. Most of this research was motivated by the immense costs of health care and social impacts due to osteoporosis in post-menopausal women and the aged. Osteoporosis results in bone loss and change of trabecular architecture, causing a decrease in bone strength. To address the problem of assessing local failure behavior of bone, we combined mechanical compression testing of trabecular bone samples with high-speed photography. In this exploratory study, we investigated healthy, osteoarthritic, and osteoporotic human vertebral trabecular bone compressed at high strain rates. Apparent strains were found to transfer into to a broad range of local strains. Strained trabeculae were seen to whiten with increasing strain. Comparison of whitened regions seen in high-speed photography sequences with scanning electron micrographs showed that the observed whitening was due to the formation of microcracks. From the results of a motion energy filter applied to the recorded movies, we saw that the whitened areas are, presumably, also areas of high deformation. In summary, high-speed photography allows the detection of microdamage in real time, leading toward a better understanding of the local processes involved in bone failure.
The mechanical properties of healthy and diseased bone tissue are extensively studied in mechanical tests. Most of this research is motivated by the immense costs of health care and social impacts due to osteoporosis in post-menopausal women and the aged. Osteoporosis results in bone loss and change of trabecular architecture, causing a decrease in bone strength. To address the problem of assessing local failure behavior of bone, we combined mechanical compression testing of trabecular bone samples with high-speed photography. In this exploratory study, we investigated healthy, osteoarthritic, and osteoporotic human vertebral trabecular bone compressed at high strain rates simulating conditions experienced in individuals during falls. Apparent strains were found to translate to a broad range of local strains. Moreover, strained trabeculae were seen to whiten with increasing strain. We hypothesize that the effect seen is due to microcrack formation in these areas, similar to stress whitening seen in synthetic polymers. From the results of a motion energy filter applied to the recorded movies, we saw that the whitened areas are, presumably, also of high deformation. We believe that this method will allow further insights into bone failure mechanisms, and help toward a better understanding of the processes involved in bone failure.
The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium–thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago.