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Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are derived by chemical manipulation of the testosterone molecule. The specified category of drugs produces anabolic, androgenic and psycho-active effects including elevated aggressive, hostile, violent and anti social behavior.
The objective of this case report observational study was to evaluate the possible psychological consequences of AS use in the twin user of each pair, compared with the non-user twin.
We studied two pairs of male monozygotic twins: one pair 24 years old and the other 31 years old, with absolute genome and phenotype similarity. One of the twins of each pair used AAS while the other did not. Both pairs lived in Hellenic provincial towns and followed a common training and nutrition regime. The psychometric instruments used were the Symptoms Check List-90 (SCL-90) and the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ). The psychometric evaluations took place within a time interval of 6 months.
The study found high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety and paranoid ideation in the twins who used AS. The non-user twins showed no deviation from their initial status.
The use of AAS induced several important psychiatric changes in monozygotic twins which were not present in the twin who did not use AAS.
This chapter deals with different gonadotropin molecules in ovarian stimulation. Human menopausal gonadotropins consist of a purified preparation of gonadotropins extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. In the natural cycle both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are required for normal follicular growth and maturation. The main risk associated with the use of FSH-containing gonadotropin products is the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). OHSS can be easily prevented by starting with a relatively low dose of gonadotropin, especially in high-risk women like young patients, those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and those with a low body mass index (BMI). From the many randomized trials that have been performed it appears that all available gonadotropins are comparably effective and safe. The differences in isoform profile did not appear to have significant clinically significant effects in in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles.